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Tên Thường gọi cho các Dung dịch axit hypoclorơ


  • Electrolytically Generated Hypochlorous Acid
  • Neutral Electrolyzed Water (NEW)
  • Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water (EOW)
  • Electro-chemically Activated Water (ECA)
  • Super-oxidized water (SOW)


Kết quả: 103 bài báo đã xuất bản


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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The effects of low-concentration electrolysed water (LcEW) (4 mg/L free available chlorine) combined with mild heat on the safety and quality of fresh organic broccoli (Brassica oleracea) were evaluated. Treatment with LcEW combined with mild heat (50 C) achieved the highest reduction in naturally occurring microorganisms and pathogens, including inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes (P < 0.05). In terms of the antioxidant content of the treated broccoli, the total phenolic levels and ferric reducing antioxidant power remained unchanged however, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the treated broccoli was higher than that of the untreated control. In addition, mild heat treatment resulted in an increase in firmness. The increased firmness was attributed to changes in the pectin structure, including the assembly and dynamics of pectin. The results revealed that mild heat induced an antiparallel orientation and spontaneous aggregation of the pectin chains. This study demonstrated that LcEW combined with mild heat treatment was effective to reduce microbial counts on fresh organic broccoli without compromising the product quality.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pichia pastoris GS115, Aureobasidium pullulans


The sanitising effect of low concentration neutralised electrolysed water (LCNEW, pH: 7.0, free available chlorine (FAC): 4 mg/L) combined with ultrasound (37 kHz, 80 W) on food contact surface was evaluated. Stainless steel coupon was chosen as attachment surface for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pichia pastoris GS115 and Aureobasidium pullulans 2012, representing bacteria, yeast and mold, respectively. The results showed that although LCNEW itself could effectively reduce survival population of E. coli ATCC 25922, P. pastoris GS115 and low concentration A. pullulans 2012 in planktonic status, LCNEW combined with ultrasound showed more sanitising efficacy for air-dried cells on coupons, with swift ificantly reduced the survival cells both on coupons and in suspension for all three strains. The results suggest that LCNEW combined with ultrasound is a promising approach to sanitise food equipment.



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Microbe(s): Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus


Electrolysed oxidising water (E.O. water) is produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride to yield primarily chlorine based oxidising products. At neutral pH this results in hypochlorous acid in the un-protonated form which has the greatest oxidising potential and ability to penetrate microbial cell walls to disrupt the cell membranes. E.O. water has been shown to be an effective method to reduce microbial contamination on food processing surfaces. The efficacy of E.O. water against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus has also been extensively confirmed in growth studies of bacteria in culture where the sanitising agent can have direct contact with the bacteria. However it can only lower, but not eliminate, bacteria on processed seafoods. More research is required to understand and optimise the impacts of E.O. pre-treatment sanitation processes on subsequent microbial growth, shelf life, sensory and safety outcomes for packaged seafood products.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium


Automated produce washers can be a useful processing aid when treating fresh produce contaminated with pathogens. The of near neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water as a wash or sanitizing solution has been shown to lead to significant reductions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh produce. To further enhance reported pathogen reductions, the effects of a combined NEO water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 6.5) and ultrasound wash protocol on lettuce and tomatoes inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium DT 104 were studied. The effects of the pH of NEO water and washer agitation on pathogen reductions were also assessed. Inoculated tomatoes and lettuce leaves were treated with either chilled deionized water or NEO water, with or without 20 kHz ultrasound (130 W and 210 W). Tomatoes were treated for 1, 3 and 5 min while lettuce was treated for 5, 10 and 15 min. Ultrasound significantly increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of NEO water (p < 0.05) but did not affect the pH and free chlorine concentration (p > 0.05). Increased washing time and higher ultrasonic power led to significantly greater reductions of both pathogens on produce items (p < 0.05). NEO water combined with 210 W ultrasonication for 15 min led to 4.4 and 4.3 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium on lettuce, respectively, while 210 W ultrasound for 5 min completely inactivated both pathogens on tomatoes. Both pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water solutions, suggesting that its presents little chance of cross-contamination.



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Microbe(s): Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella sp.


Electrolyzed water generators are readily available in the food industry as a renewable source of hypochlorous acid that eliminates the need for workers to handle hazardous hypochlorite concentrates. We applied electrolyzed water (EW) directly to multi-strain cocktails of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella sp. at 250 ppm free available chlorine (FAC) and achieved greater than 6-log reductions in 2 min. Lower EW values were examined as antimicrobial interventions for fresh meat (beef carcasses), processed meats (frankfurters), and food contact surfaces (slicing blades). Little or no reduction relative to controls was observed when generic E. coli-inoculated beef carcasses or L. monocytogenes-inoculated frankfurters were showered with EW. Spray application of EW (25 and 250-ppm FAC) onto L. monocytogenes-inoculated slicing blades showed that greater reductions were obtained with clean (3.6 and 5.7-log reduction) vs. dirty (0.6 and 3.3-log reduction) slicing blades, respectively. Trials with L. monocytogenes-inoculated protein-EW solutions demonstrated that protein content as low as 0.1% is capable of eliminating FAC, reducing antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes. EW appears better positioned as a surface sanitizer with minimal organic material that can otherwise act as an effective reducing agent to the oxidizing solution rendering it ineffective.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O104:H4, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Campylobacter jejuni


The effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) on inactivating Escherichia coli O104:H4, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hyrol possible unhygienic practices during production and processing of shellfish without apparent changes in the quality of the shellfish.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguinis


Chemotherapeutic agents have been used as an adjunct to mechanical debridement for peri-implantitis treatment. The present in vitro study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and chlorhexidine (CHX) at eliminating Gram-negative (E. coli and P. gingivalis) and Gram-positive (E. faecalis and S. sanguinis) bacteria. The effect of irrigating volume and exposure time on the antimicrobial efficacy of HOCl was evaluated, and a durability analysis was completed. Live/dead staining, morphology observation, alamarBlue assay, and lipopolysacLPS) detection were examined on grit-blasted and biofilm-contaminated titanium alloy discs after treatment with the three chemotherapeutic agents. The results indicated that HOCl exhibited better antibacterial efficacy with increasing irrigating volumes. HOCl achieved greater antibacterial efficacy as treatment time was increased. A decrease in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed when HOCl was unsealed and left in contact with the air. All the irrigants showed antibacterial activity and killed the majority of bacteria on the titanium alloy surfaces of biofilm-contaminated implants. Moreover, HOCl significantly lowered the LPS concentration of P. gingivalis when compared with NaOCl and CHX. Thus, a HOCl antiseptic may be effective for cleaning biofilm-contaminated implant surfaces.



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Microbe(s): Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli O157: H7


This study discussed the effects of different bacterial concentrations and centrifugations on the antimicrobial efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Overnight grown bacterial cultures were centrifuged 1 to 3 times and bacterial concentrations were adjusted to approximately 9 (high), 7 (medium), or 5 (low) log10 CFU/mL. Antimicrobial efficacy of acidic EO water (AEW) and neutral pH EO water (NEW) containing 0.2530 mg/L available chlorine was determined. In order to ascertain the effects of AEW and NEW on targeted pathogens, cellular properties at bio-molecular levels were also studied. The results showed that the susceptibility of both pathogens decreased significantly with increasing bacterial concentrations. AEW with 10, 0.25 and 0.25 mg/L and NEW with 30, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/L available chlorine were needed for high, medium and low bacterial concentrations, respectively to non-detectable levels by direct plating for E. coli O157:H7. B. subtilis was found more resistant to both EO water treatments and only 4.1 and 3.8 log reductions were achieved for AEW and NEW containing 30 mg/L available chlorine. On the other hand, it was observed that as centrifugation time increased, both bacteria became significantly more sensitive to EO water treatments. When centrifugation period increased from 1 to 3 times, additional 2.67 and 3.38 log E. coli O157:H7 reductions were observed for AEW and NEW treatments, respectively. A similar trend was observed for B. subtilis. DNA and protein leakage increased when pathogens were treated by AEW and NEW with increasing available chlorine concentration, but decreased DNA and protein leakage were observed with increased centrifugation times. These results indicate that initial bacterial concentration and the centrifugation time are two important factors and should be carefully considered in chlorine-based antimicrobial efficacy testing.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella Infantis


The capacity of slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW), in both liquid and spray form, to inactivate bacteria was evaluated as a potential candidate for biosecurity enhancement in poultry production. SAHW (containing 50 or 100 ppm chlorine, pH 6) was able to inactivate Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis in liquid to below detectable levels (2.6 log10 CFU/ml) within 5 sec of exposure. In addition, SAHW antibacterial capacity was evaluated by spraying it using a nebulizer into a box containing these bacteria, which were present on the surfaces of glass plates and rayon sheets. SAHW was able to inactivate both bacterial species on the glass plates (dry condition) and rayon sheets within 5 min spraying and 5 min contact times, with the exception of 50 ppm SAHW on the rayon sheets. Furthermore, a corrosivity test determined that SAHW does not corrode metallic objects, even at the longest exposure times (83 days). Our findings demonstrate that SAHW is a good candidate for biosecurity enhancement in the poultry industry. Spraying it on the surfaces of objects, eggshells, egg incubators and transport cages could reduce the chances of contamination and disease transmission. These results augment previous findings demonstrating the competence of SAHW as an anti-viral disinfectant.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


In the present study, the disinfection efficacy on fresh-cut cilantro of the combination of strongly acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) and alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) was evaluated, in comparison with single slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and single AcEW treatments. The populations of E. Coli O78 on inoculated cilantro treated by AlEW 5 min + AcEW 5 min, was not detected while 3.43 and 3.73 log10 CFU/g in the AlEW 2.5 min + AcEW 2.5 min and AcEW 2 min + AlEW 2 min + AcEW 2 min treatments respectively. Our results implied that the bactericidal abilities of the combination of AlEW and AcEW treatments were higher than that of single AcEW and SAEW, which also was demonstrated microscopically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the efficacy of combination of AcEW and AlEW in reducing natural micro flora on fresh-cut cilantro was also evaluated compared with single AcEW and SAEW. The results showed that the combination of AlEW and AcEW had stronger sterilization ability than single AcEW and SAEW. Considering the utilizations of AlEW and disinfection efficacy, we suggest that the combination of AlEW and AcEW may also be a better choice in fresh-cut produce.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing pathogens on pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces in the presence of organic matter and estimate its efficacy in comparison with povidone iodine solution for reducing pathogenic microorganisms on internal surfaces of layer houses. Pure cultures of E.coli, S.enteritidis, and S.aureus and cotton fabric surfaces inoculated with these strains were treated with SAEW in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of BSA, complete inactivation of all strains in pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces was observed after 2.5 and 5 min treatment with SAEW at 40 mg/L of available chlorine concentration (ACC), respectively. The bactericidal efciency of SAEW increased with increasing ACC, but decreased with increasing BSA concentration. Then, the surfaces of the layer houses were sprayed with SAEW at 60, 80, and 100 mg/L of ACC and povidone iodine using the automated disinfection system at a rate of 110 mL/m2, respectively. Samples from the floor, wall, feed trough, and egg conveyor belt surfaces were collected with sterile cotton swabs before and after spraying disinfection. Compared to tap water, SAEW and povidone iodine significantly reduced microbial populations on each surface of the layer houses. SAEW with 80 or 100 mg/L of ACC showed significantly higher efficacy than povidone iodine for total aerobic bacteria, staphylococci, coliforms, or yeasts and moulds on the floor and feed trough surfaces (P < 0.05). SAEW was more effective than povidone iodine at reducing total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and moulds on the wall surface. Additionally, SAEW had similar bactericidal activity with povidone iodine on the surface of the egg conveyor belt. Results suggest that SAEW exerts a higher or equivalent bactericidal efficiency for the surfaces compared to povidone iodine, and it may be used as an effective alternative for reducing microbial contamination on surfaces in layer houses.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus


The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water SAEW (pH range 5.06.5, oxidationreduction potential 6501000 mV, available chlorine concentration 1080 mg/L) containing 0, 15, and 30 ppm chlorine and 0, 50, and 100 min of ultrasound US (37 kHz, 380 W) using the central composite design (CCD) on the reductions of Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (initial value, approximately 67 log10 colony forming unit (CFU) of E. coli or V. parahaemolyticus/g) and the sensory properties on freshly sliced shad (Konosirus punctatus), in comparison with SAEW or US alone. Another aim was to develop the response surface model for E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad treated with the combination of SAEW and US. Single treatments with SAEW (chlorine 15 ppm), SAEW (chlorine 30 ppm), or US for 50 min caused a much-less-than-1-log10 reduction in the number of both E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in the shad. In contrast, the combination of SAEW (15 or 30 ppm chlorine) and US (50 or 100 min) caused >1-log10 reduction of E. coli numbers (1.041.86 log reduction) and V. parahaemolyticus (1.021.42 log reduction) in the shad. In addition, the sensory properties of the shad were not changed under the harshest conditions of the combination (SAEW with chlorine at 30 ppm and US for 100 min). Response surface models were developed for the population of E. coli (Y=6.153220.024732X 10.016486X 20.00015X 1 X 20.00024X 1 20.00007X 2 2) and V. parahaemolyticus (Y=5.676490.042598X 10.014013X 20.00003X 1 X 20.00006X 1 20.00062X 2 2 ), where Y is the bacterial population (log10 CFU), X 1 is ppm chlorine in SAEW, and X 2 is the duration of treatment (min) with US. The appropriateness of the models was verified by bias factor (B f 1.10 for E. coli, 1.03 for V. parahaemolyticus), accuracy factor (A f 1.11 for E. coli, 1.05 for V. parahaemolyticus), mean square error (MSE 0.0087 for E. coli, 0.0028 for V. parahaemolyticus), and coefficient of determination (R 2 0.976 for E. coli, 0.982 for V. parahaemolyticus). To produce a 1-log10 reduction of E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus, US treatment times for E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus were calculated within the maximum of 54 and 67 min, respectively, at chlorine 10 ppm in SAEW. SAEW chlorine concentrations (ppm) for E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus were calculated within the maximum of 38 and 41 ppm, respectively, at 20 min of US. Therefore, the resulting response surface models for E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus should be further validated on slices of other kinds of raw fish. Ultimately, the response surface quadratic polynomial equations may thus be used for predicting the combined treatments of SAEW and against E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus in raw fish production, processing, and distribution.



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Microbe(s): Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Myroides spp, MRSA, VRE


The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of usage and normal concentrations of electrolyzed water in hospital. In our study, the effects of different concentrations of electrolyzed water on two gram positive, four gram negative standard strains and clinical isolates of four gram negative, two gram positive, one spore-forming bacillus and Myroides spp strains that lead to hospital infections were researched. The effects of different concentrations and different contact times of Envirolyte electrolyzed water on cited strains were researched through method of qualitative suspension tests. Petri dishes fo bacteria have been incubated at 37 C 48 hours. Bactericidal disinfectant was interpreted to be effective at the end of the period due to the lack of growth. Solutions to which disinfectant were not added were prepared with an eye to control reproduction and controlcultures were made by using neutralizing agents. 1/1, 1/2, and 1/10 concentrations of Envirolyte electrolyzed water were found to be effective on the bacteria that lead to hospital infections used during all test times. As a conclusion, based upon the results we acquired, it was observed that Envirolyte electrolyzed water of 100 concentration would be convenient to be used for disinfection when diluted to a usage concentration of 1/10.



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli


The article focuses on investigation of the effects of usage of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) with different sodium chloride concentration (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1) for the preparation of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols and hydrogels. To determine physiochemical properties of hydrosols, the pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), available chloride concentration (ACC) and rheological parameters such us gelation and flow temperatures were measured. The samples were also 0.1 w/v). These results suggest that hydrogels and hydrosols incorporated with AEW may be used for food preservation.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O104: H4, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus


This study investigated the effect of electrolyzed water on pathogenic bacteria cell suspensions. Specifically, we evaluated the efficacy of strong and weak acidic electrolyzed waters (SACEW, WACEW) and strong and weak alkaline electrolyzed waters (SALEW, WALEW) on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hyificantly more resistant to ALEW compared to ACEW. Results also show that the bactericidal activity of SACEW (20 mg/mL ACC) was more effective than WACEW (10 mg/mL ACC) in terms of inactivating E. coli O104:H4. Alkaline-electrolyzed waters were found to reduce cell numbers by 13 log (P < 0.05). However, alkaline electrolyzed water was less effective (P < 0.05) than acidic electrolyzed treatment.



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Microbe(s): Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus


Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in combination with ultrasound for decontamination of kashk was investigated. SAEW had a pH of 5.3-5.5, an oxidation reduction potential of 545-600 mV, and an available chlorine concentration of 20-22 mg/L. Kashk is a dairy product with a unique aroma and a high nutritive value produced in Iran. A 2/1 SAEW/kashk ratio showed 1.42, 1.13, 1.24, and 1.37 log CFU/mL microbial reductions in Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively, at room temperature. A combination of SAEW treatment with ultrasound (SAEWultrasound) resulted in 1.87, 1.67, 1.71, and 1.91 log CFU/mL reductions in S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and A. fumigatus, respectively. The developed hurdle approach can be a useful tool for sanitization of kashk and similar products. Application of SAEWultrasound in dairy microbial decontamination is first reported herein.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium


The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 7.5) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, and tomatoes washed in an automated produce washer for different times and washing speeds. Tomatoes and lettuce leaves were spot inoculated with 100 L of a 5 strain cocktail mixture of either pathogen and washed with 10 or 8 L of NEO water, respectively. Washing lettuce for 30 min at 65 rpm led to the greatest reductions, with 4.2 and 5.9 log CFU/g reductions achieved for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively on romaine, whereas iceberg lettuce reductions were 3.2 and 4.6 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively. Washing tomatoes for 10 min at 65 rpm achieved reductions greater than 8 and 6 log CFU/tomato on S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 respectively. All pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water wash solutions. No detrimental effects on the visual quality of the produce studied were observed under all treatment conditions. Results show the adoption of this washing procedure in food service operations could be useful in ensuring produce safety.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium


This study evaluated the efficacy of the individual treatments (slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW] or fumaric acid [FA]) and their combination to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium in fresh pork as well as to study the shelf life and sensory quality (color, odor, and texture) of pork during storage at 4 and 10 C. The inoculated pork samples (10 g) were dipped for 3 min in each treatment (tap water [TW], SAcEW, strong acidic electrolyzed water [StAEW], 0.5% FA, or SAcEW + 0.5% FA) with or without mild heat (40 C). Decontamination of fresh pork with SAcEW +0.5% FA at 40 C for 3 min showed greater bactericidal effect compared to other treatments, which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and S. Typhimurium by 2.59, 2.69, 2.38, and 2.99 log CFU/g, respectively. This combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) yielded in a longer lag time of naturally occurring bacteria (TBC) on pork stored at 4 C. This combined treatment also prolonged the shelf life of pork up to 6 days and 4 5 days when stored at 4 C and 10 C, respectively, compared to those of the untreated pork. The results suggest that the combined treatment of SAcEW + 0.5% FA has potential as a novel method to enhance the microbial safety and quality of fresh pork.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


Water can be a vector for foodborne pathogen cross-contamination during washing of vegetables if an efficient method of water disinfection is not used. Chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, but it generates disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Therefore, alternative disinfection methods are sought. In this study, a dynamic system was used to simulate the commercial conditions of a washing tank. Organic matter and the inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were progressively added to the wash water in the washing tank. We evaluated the effectiveness of the electrolyzed water (EW) when combining with the addition of salt (1, 0.5 and 0.15 g/L NaCl) on the pathogenic inactivation, organic matter depletion and THM generation. Results indicated that electrolysis of vegetable wash water with addition of salt (0.5 g/L NaCl) was able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 population build-up and decrease COD accumulation while low levels of THMs were produced.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7 Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes


The bactericidal efficacy of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AC-EW) (pH = 2.30, free chlorine = 38 ppm) and sterile distilled water (DW) on three pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) inoculated on raw trout skin, chicken legs and beef meat surfaces was evaluated. The decontaminating effect of AC-EW and DW was tested for 0 (control), 1, 3, 5 and 10 min at 22 C. AC-EW significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the three pathogens in the inoculated samples compared to the control and DW. The level of reduction ranged between ca.1.5 1.6 logs for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the inoculated foods. However, AC-EW exhibited less bactericidal effect against L. monocytogenes (1.1 1.3 logs reduction). AC-EW elicited about 1.6 2.0 log reduction in the total mesophilic count. Similar treatment with DW reduced pathogens load by ca. 0.2 1.0 log reduction and total mesophiles by ca. 0.5 0.7 logs. No complete elimination of the three pathogens was obtained using AC-EW possibly because of the level of organic matter and blood moving from food samples to the AC-EW solution. This study demonstrates that AC-EW could considerably reduce common foodborne pathogens in fish, chicken and beef products.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., Fungi, Yeast


This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and YMC by 3.32, 3.11, 3.97, 3.66, 3.62, and >3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


The purpose of this study was to evaluate and model the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce submitted to a neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) treatment, packaged in passive modified atmosphere and subsequently stored at different temperatures (4, 8, 13, 16 C) for a maximum of 27 days. Results indicated that E. coli O157:H7 was able to grow at 8, 13, and 16 C, and declined at 4 C. However at 8 C, the lag time lasted 19 days, above the typical shelf-life time for this type of products. A secondary model predicting growth rate as a function of temperature was developed based on a square-root function. A comparison with literature data indicated that the growth predicted by the model for E. coli O157:H7 was again lower than those observed with other disinfection treatments or packaging conditions (chlorinated water, untreated product, NEW, etc.). The specific models here developed might be applied to predict growth in products treated with NEW and to improve existing quantitative risk assessments.



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Microbe(s): Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli


Pathogenic contamination is a food safety concern. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) in killing pathogens, namely, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli in shrimp. Pure cultures of each pathogen were submerged separately in NEW containing five different chlorine concentrations: 10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 ppm. For each concentration, three submersion times were tested: 1, 3, and 5 min. The population of V. parahaemolyticus was rapidly reduced even at low concentrations, but prolonged contact times caused only a slight reduction. V. vulnificus was gradually inhibited with increasing NEW concentrations and contact times. For the V. parahaemolyticus applications of 70 ppm for 5 min and of 100 ppm for 3 min, each eliminated 7 log CFU/ml. For V. vulnificus, applications of 50 ppm for 3 min and 100 ppm for 1 min, each eliminated 7 log CFU/ml. Salmonella Enteritidis and E. coli were slightly reduced by NEW. Applications of 50 ppm for 15 min and 10 ppm for 30 min completely eliminated 4.16 log CFU/g of V. parahaemolyticus in inoculated shrimp, while only a 1-log CFU/g reduction of V. vulnificus was detected. Soaking shrimp in 10 ppm NEW for 30 min did not affect its sensory quality. Our results suggest NEW could be an alternative sanitizer to improve the microbiological quality of seafood.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


This study was conducted to investigate the disinfection efficacy of hurdle treatments (thermosonication plus slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and to develop a model for describing the effect of storage temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 C) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut kale treated with or without (control) thermosonication combined with SAcEW. The hurdle treatments of thermosonication plus SAcEW had strong bactericidal effects against E. coli O157:H7 on kale, with approximately 3.3-log reductions. A modified Gompertz model was used to describe growth parameters such as specific growth rate (SGR) and lag time (LT) as a function of storage temperature, with high coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.98). SGR increased and LT declined with rising temperatures in all samples. A significant difference was found between the SGR values obtained from treated and untreated samples. Secondary models were established for SGR and LT to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on the growth kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in treated and untreated kale. Statistical evaluation was carried out to validate the performance of the developed models, based on the additional experimental data not used for the model development. The validation step indicated that the overall predictions were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had lower standard errors, indicating that this new growth model can be used to assess the risk of E. coli O157:H7 contamination on kale.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus


The efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs was evaluated and compared to chlorine dioxide (CD), acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and NaClO solution. The eggs were artificially inoculated with S. enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus and sprayed or immersed with SAEW, alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) followed by SAEW (AlEWSAEW), CD, AEW and NaClO solution, respectively. The effect of SAEW on the natural microbiota of shell eggs was also determined. Spraying shell eggs with SAEW, CD and NaClO solution at an ACC of 60 mg/L had no significant bactericidal difference for foodborne pathogens and indigenous microbiota on shell eggs, and the difference of disinfection effect between SAEW and AEW was not significant, whereas the bactericidal activity of SAEW for E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, total aerobic bacteria and moulds and yeasts was significantly higher than that of CD and NaClO solution at ACCs of 80 or 100 mg/L. SAEW was found to be more effective when used in conjunction with AlEW, and higher reductions were obtained with the immersion treatment. Results indicate that the disinfectant efficiency of SAEW is equivalent to or higher than that of chlorine dioxide and NaClO solution and therefore SAEW shows the potential to be used for sanitization of egg shells as an environmentally friendly disinfection agent.



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Microbe(s): Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSE, VRE Bacillus subtilis, Myroides spp.


Super-oxidized water is one of the broad spectrum disinfectants, which was introduced recently. There are many researches to find reliable chemicals which are effective, inexpensive, easy to obtain and use, and effective for disinfection of microorganisms leading hospital infections. Antimicrobial activity of super-oxidized water is promising. The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Medilox super-oxidized water that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as high level disinfectant. Material and methods In this study, super-oxidized water obtained from Medilox Soosan E & C, Korea device, which had been already installed in our hospital, was used. Antimicrobial activities of different concentrations of super-oxidized water (1/1, 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/20, 1/50, 1/100) at different exposure times (1, 2, 5, 10, 30 min) against six ATCC strains, eight antibiotic resistant bacteria, yeasts and molds were evaluated using qualitative suspension test. Dey-Engley Neutralizing Broth Sigma-Aldrich, USA was used as neutralizing agent. Results Medilox was found to be effective against all standard strains (Acinetobacter baumannii 19606, Escherichia coli 25922, Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Klebsiella pneumoniae 254988, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853, Staphylococcus aureus 29213), all clinical isolates (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Myroides spp.), and all yeastsat 1/1 dilution in 1 minute. It was found to be effective on Aspergillus flavus at 1/1 dilution in 2 minutes and on certain molds in 5 minutes. Conclusion Medilox super-oxidized water is a broad spectrum, on-site producible disinfectant, which is effective on bacteria and fungi and can be used for the control of nosocomial infection.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


In the wake of discussion about the of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for ncy of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella


To evaluate the disinfection effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolysed water (SAEW, pH 625653), a new environmental friendly agent for inactivating micro-organisms adhered to the facility and aerosolized in the air of the swine barns and to explore the application of SAEW in livestock industries. Methods and Results Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the swine hoair and treated by SAEW. The SAEW solution was flushed onto surfaces and sprayed within the whole swine barn. SAEW with an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 300 mg l1 can inhibit isolated microbes completely. The usage of SAEW (300 mg l1) resulted in a significant (P < 005) reduction in microbes on the wall, rail and floor after flushing disinfection. Additionally, spraying SAEW at an ACC of 300 mg l1 reduced 59 of the airborne organisms in 30 min and kept the population of microbes at a reduced level for at least 8 h. SAEW treatment also reduced pathogens on surfaces (P < 003) after spraying disinfection except on the surface of the wall. Conclusions SAEW may be a potential alternative disinfectant to reduce infections in swine barns Significance and Impact of the Study The results of this study provide information on the antimicrobial efficiency of SAEW on the airborne bacteria and fungi in swine barns.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli


Salmonella spp. may be found in the nest box of breeder chickens, cold egg-storage rooms at the farm, on the hatchery truck, or in the hatchery environment (5). These bacteria may then be spread to fertilized hatching eggs on the shell or, in some cases, may penetrate the shell and reside just beneath the surface of the eggshell.Research has demonstrated that contamination of raw poultry products with Salmonella spp. may be attributable to cross-contamination in the hatchery from Salmonella infected eggs or surfaces to uninfected baby chicks during the hatching process. Cox et al. (6 and 7) reported that broiler and breeder hatcheries were highly contaminated with Salmonella spp. Within the broiler hatchery, 71 percent of eggshell fragments, 80 percent of chick conveyor belts swabs, and 74 percent of pad samples placed under newly hatched chicks contained Salmonella spp. (6).Cason et al. (4) reported that, although fertile hatching eggs were contaminated with high levels of Salmonella typhimurium, they were still able to hatch. The authors stated that paratyphoid salmonellae do not caadverse health affects to the developing and hatching chick. During the hatching process, Salmonella spp. is readily spread throughout the hatching cabinet due to rapid air movement by circulation fans. When eggs were inoculated with a marker strain of Salmonella during hatching, greater than 80 percent of the chicks in the trays above and below the inoculated eggs were contaminated (4). In an earlier study, Cason et al. (3) demonstrated that salmonellae on the exterior of eggs or in eggshell membranes could be transmitted to baby chicks during pipping.Salmonella may persist in hatchery environments for long periods of time. When chick fluff contaminated with Salmonella was held for 4 years at room temperature, up to 1,000,000 Salmonella cells per gram could be recovered from these samples (12).Researchers have demonstrated a link between cross-contamination in the hatchery and contaminated carcasses during processing. Goren et al. (8) isolated salmonellae from three different commercial hatcheries in Europe and reported that the same serotypes found in the hatcheries could be found on processed broiler chicken carcass skin. Proper disinfection of the hatchery environment and fertile hatching eggs, therefore, is essential for reducing Salmonella on ready-to-cook carcasses.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


The resistance of thirty two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and six major serotypes of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) plus E. coli O104:H4 was tested against electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water using two different methods; modified AOAC 955.16 sequential inoculation method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In sequential inoculation method efficacy of sodium hypochlorite was also compared with equal free chlorine (45 mg/L) containing EO water. MIC experiments were conducted for 15 s testing period with free chlorine concentrations of 3.00, 2.50, 2.00, 1.50, 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 mg/L. The individual strain resistance when tested using the sequential inoculation method was in between 5 and 10 positive tubes, where greater numbers of positive tubes indicate increased resistance of the respective strain to the particular sanitizer. The MIC of individual strains ranged from 0.50 to 1.50 mg/L free chlorine of EO water. In comparison to sodium hypochlorite at same free chlorine concentration EO water was more effective against all STEC cocktails tested. The resistance of STEC cocktails using sequential inoculation method was determined as E. coli O157 O103 O26 0111 O121 045 > O145. The similar pattern of resistance was observed when cocktails were subjected to MIC. The results indicate that different strains of same serotype can differ in their resistance toward an intervention. In addition, EO water treatment that reduces E. coli O157:H7 can equally if not more effectively reduce other non-O157 STEC tested.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


Effect of ultrasonication (40 kHz) to enhance low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) efficacy for microbial decontamination on lettuce leaves was investigated. Lettuce was separately treated with LcEW, ultrasonication, LcEW combined with ultrasonication, LcEW followed by ultrasonication, and ultrasonication followed by LcEW for 1, 3, and 5 min for each step at room temperature. The highest reduction (2.3 log CFU/g) in total bacteria count (TBC) was resulted from ultrasonication followed by LcEW. Subsequently, the effect of temperature was studied resulting in 2.6 and 3.18 log CFU/g reduction of TBC and Escherichia coli O157:H7 respectively, in 3 min ultrasonication followed by 3 min LcEW treatment at 40 C. This optimum treatment also prevented lettuce from reaching 7.0 log CFU/g in TBC until the end of the 6 day storage at 10 C. Therefore, this newly developed approach may result in improved microbiological safety and enhanced shelf life of produce.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


The effect of operating conditions (current density, recirculation flow rate and electrode doping level) on the efficacy of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes to inactivate microorganisms and decrease chemical oxygen demand (COD) was studied in lettuce process wash water with a COD of 725 mg/L and inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Changes in pathogen population, COD, pH, temperature, redox potential, and free and total chlorine were monitored in process wash water during treatments. Considering the specific characteristics of the washing step included in the fresh-cut processing, the disinfection of process wash water should be of fast action. A biphasic with a shoulder model was used to estimate shoulder length (Sl), log-linear inactivation rates (kmax1,kmax2), lowest population (Nf) and highest log reduction (HLR). Current density clearly influenced Sl, and kmax2; recirculation flow rate influenced Sl, kmax1,kmax2 and COD depletion; and doping level influenced Nf. No relationship was observed between inactivation parameters and chlorine concentration. Conditions including high current density (180 mA/cm2), high flow rate (750 l/h) and high doping level (8 000 mol/mol) seems to provide a disinfection efficiency suitable to decrease the chance of bacterial cross contamination in the fresh-cut industries while saving on water consumption and decreasing the amount of wastewater effluents.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) and other carcass decontaminants against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in fresh pork and to conduct the shelf life/sensory study of pork. Pork samples were inoculated with approximately 5 log cfu/g of afore mentioned pathogens and dip treated with distilled water (DW), aqueous ozone (AO), 3% lactic acid (LA), 3% calcium lactate (CaL), sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl), LcEW, strong acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), and LcEW + CaL for 5 min at room temperature (23 2 C). The greatest reduction (3.0 3.2 log cfu/g) was achieved with LcEW + CaL against pathogens and significantly differed (p < 0.05) from other treatments. This combination also extended shelf life of pork up to 6 days at 4 C storage.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The effects of hardness and pH of water used to prepare electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water and bleach solutions on the bactericidal activity of sanitizer prepared from the water were examined. EO water and bleach solutions were prepared with hard water of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/l as CaCO3 at pH 5, 6, 7, and 8. Increased water hardness tended to increase free chlorine and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and decrease pH of EO water. Chlorine levels also increased with water pH. Water hardness and pH only had minor effect on the pH of bleach solutions. Increasing hardness to 50 mg/l increased antimicrobial effect of EO water against Escherichia coli O157:H7, but reduced when water hardness further increased to 100 mg/l or higher. Water pH had no effect on EO water produced against E. coli O157:H7. Water hardness had no significant effect on bactericidal activity of EO water against Listeria monocytogenes but elevated water pH decreased bactericidal activity of EO water produced against L. monocytogenes. Bleach solution prepared using hard water at 200 mg/l or at pH 7 or higher had significant lower efficacy in inactivating E. coli O157:H7, but had no effect on the inactivation of L. monocytogenes. Results indicate that increasing the hardness or pH of water used to prepare EO water or bleach solutions will decrease the bactericidal activity of sanitizers prepared from the water.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes


Electrochemically activated water (ECAW), also known as electrolyzed water, and ozonized water are typically effective in inactivating bacteria, but their generation typically uses high current and voltage. A few simpler antimicrobial technologies that are also based on the application of a mild electrical current have been recently marketed to food retail and service customers claiming to have sanitizing properties for controlling bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the sanitizing effect of some of these commercial technologies on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica and compare them with sterile water, generated ECAW generated with a pilot size electrolyzing unit, and salt solutions sprayed using commercial device sprays. A concentration of 100 mg/L ECAW had sanitizing effects of at least 5 log CFU/mL reductions on liquid culture and more than 4 log CFU/coupon reductions for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella dried on stainless steel surface, respectively. No bacterial cells were detected by direct plate counting post-ECAW treatment. In contrast, the treatment of liquid cultures with any of the commercial technologies tested resulted in non-significant bacterial cell reductions greater than 0.5 log CFU/mL. Similarly, when cells had been dried on metal surfaces and treated with any of the water generated with those technologies, no reductions were observed. When the manufacturer s instructions were followed, the reduction of cells on surface was largely due to the physical removal by cloth-wiping after water fraction application. These results indicate that treatment with any of these portable technologies had no noticeable antimicrobial activity. These results would be helpful for guiding consumers when choosing a right sanitization to ensure food safety.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is well known as a good sanitizer against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, microbial reductions from SAEW treatment are not enough to ensure produce safety. Therefore, it is necessary to improve its antimicrobial efficiency by combining it with other appropriate approaches. This study examined the microbicidal activity of SAEW (pH 5.2-5.5, oxidation reduction potential 500-600 mV, available chlorine concentration 21-22 mg/l) on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach, four common fresh vegetables in Korea under same laboratory conditions. Subsequently, effects of ultrasonication and water wash to enhance the sanitizing efficacy of SAEW were studied, separately. Finally, an optimized simple and easy approach consisting of simultaneous SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (3 min) followed by water wash (150 rpm, 1 min) was developed (SAEW + US-WW). This newly developed hurdle treatment significantly enhanced the microbial reductions compared to SAEW treatment alone, SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (SAEW + US) and SAEW treatment followed by water wash (SAEW-WW) at room temperature (23 2 C). Microbial reductions of yeasts and molds, total bacteria count and inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were in the range of 1.76-2.8 log cfu/g on different samples using the new hurdle approach.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


The food industry has recognized electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) as a promising alternative decontamination technique. However, there is not a consensus about the sanitizing mechanism of EOW. In this study, we evaluated the disinfection efficacy of different types of EOW on Escherichia coli. Based on the hypothesis of hydroxyl radicals existing in EOW, in the present study, the hydroxyl radicals existed in slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) diluted to different levels were detected quantitatively. An ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer was used to scan EOW with different pH values. Accounting for the results of UV scanning to EOW with different pH value and the disinfection efficacy of different types of EOW, it can be concluded that considering the lower chlorine concentration of EOW compared with traditional chlorine disinfectants, the existing form of chlorine compounds rather than the hydroxyl radicals played important role in the disinfection efficacy of EOW.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua


The effects of various sanitizers on the viability and cellular injury to structures of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were investigated. A food grade organic acidic formulation (pH 2.5) and acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyzed water [AEW (pH 2.7, oxidation reduction potential; ORP: 1100 mV, free available chlorine; FAC: 150 ppm), NEW (pH 6.9, ORP: 840 mV, FAC: 150 ppm), BEW (pH 11.6, ORP: 810 mV)] were used to treat E. coli and L. innocua cells. After 10 min of exposure to the sanitizers, changes to the bacterial numbers and cell structures were evaluated by plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. It was concluded from the results that the sanitizers reduced the E. coli cells between 2 and 3 log CFU/mL. Except for the BEW treatment, reductions in L. innocua population were greater (>1 log CFU/mL) than that of E. coli for all treatments. Data from the TEM showed that all sanitizers caused changes to the cell envelope and cytoplasm of both organisms. However, smaller changes were observed for L. innocua cells. Decrease in the integrity of the cell envelope and aggregation of the cytoplasmic components appeared to be mainly because of exposure to the sanitizers. The organic acid formulation and AEW were the most effective sanitizers against bacterial cells, indicating that penetration of acidic substances effectively caused the cell inactivation.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis


Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) as a novel antimicrobial agent is generated by electrolysis of dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) and/or sodium chloride (NaCl) solution in a cell with or without a separating membrane. The ultraviolet absorption spectra were used to determine the concentration of hypochlorous acid (HClO) and hypochlorite ion (ClO ) in SAEW generated by four different methods and their bactericidal efficiency for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated. During the production of equivalent available chlorine in SAEW, more HClO was produced by electrolysis of HCl solution in a non-membrane generator and mixing the acid and alkaline electrolyzed water generated in a generator with membrane, compared with the methods of adding HCl to neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) and electrolyzing the mixture of NaCl and HCl solution in a non-membrane cell. At the 10 mg/L available chlorine concentration, SAEW produced by the methods with more HClO generation had significantly higher (p<0.05) bactericidal efficiency for inactivation of both pathogens.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua


The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) to sanitize cutting boards used for food preparation was investigated. Cutting boards made of hardwood and bamboo were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12 and Listeria innocua, dried for 1 h, washed, rinsed and sanitized with NEW, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution, or tap water (control). After each washing protocol, surviving bacterial populations were determined. Results showed that both NEW and NaClO sanitizing solutions produced similar levels of bacterial reductions. In manual washing, the population reductions by NEW and NaClO were 3.4 and 3.6 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for E. coli, and 4.1 and 3.9 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for L. innocua, respectively. In the automatic washing, the reductions by NEW and NaClO were 4.0 and 4.0 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for E. coli, and 4.2 and 3.6 log10 CFU/100 cm2 for L. innocua, respectively. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in surviving bacteria counts when comparing board material types.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


Low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) has been proved to be an effective sanitizer against pathogens in cell suspensions as well as pathogens and spoilage organisms attached to vegetables, poultry and meat. In this study, effect of current, electrolysis time and salt concentration on physical properties (pH, ORP and ACC) and inactivation efficacy of LcEW was monitored. Pure cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were prepared and exposure treatment was performed for bacteria inactivation study in cell suspensions at room temperature (23 2 C). Our results showed increased reduction of both pathogens with the increase in current. Changes of current also affected the ACC, pH and ORP values of the tested solution. Values of ACC, pH and ORP were increased with the increase in current. Log reduction of 4.9 5.6 log CFU/mL for both pathogens was achieved when the current was increased from 1.15 to 1.45 A. Electrolysis time and percent of salt concentration also influenced the physical properties of LcEW. Stability of LcEW was also investigated under different conditions and it was observed that LcEW produced with increased electrical current was more stable during storage. Therefore, current might influence the properties and sanitizing effect of LcEW.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


This study was intended to evaluate the bactericidal effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) and chlorinated water on populations of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on avocados (Persea americana var. Hass). In the first experiment, inoculated avocados were treated with a water wash applied by spraying tap water containing 1 mg/liter free chlorine for 15 s (WW); WW treatment and then spraying sodium hypochlorite in water containing 75 mg/liter free chlorine for 15 s (Cl75); WW treatment and then spraying alkaline EOW for 30 s (AkEW) and then spraying acid EOW (AcEW) for 15 s; and spraying AkEW and then AcEW. In another experiment, the inoculated avocados were treated by spraying AkEW and then AcEW for 15, 30, 60, or 90 s. All three pathogen populations were lowered between 3.6 and 3.8 log cycles after WW treatment. The application of Cl75 did not produce any further reduction in counts, whereas AkEW and then AcEW treatment resulted in significantly lower bacterial counts for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 but not for Salmonella. Treatments with AkEW and then AcEW produced a significant decrease in L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7 populations, with estimated log reductions of 3.9 to 5.2, 5.1 to 5.9, and 4.2 to 4.9 log CFU/cm , respectively. Spraying AcEW for more than 15 s did not produce any further decrease in counts of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7, whereas L. monocytogenes counts were significantly lower after spraying AcEW for 60 s. Applying AkEW and then AcEW for 15 or 30 s seems to be an effective alternative to reduce bacterial pathogens on avocado surfaces.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


Electrolyzed seawater (ESW) is reportedly an effective disinfectant for aquaculture equipment becaof its simple mechanism and cost effectiveness. The potential of electrolyzed seawater for oyster depuration was studied using different experiments. The first was determination of chlorine tolerance of oysters. Second was effectiveness of ESW against Escherichia coli in artificially contaminated oysters and third was effectiveness of ESW against E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters from two culture farms. Tolerance of oysters for Chlorine was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histological observation demonstrating that more than 0.5 mg/L of chlorine was toxic while 0.2 mg/L was safe for the oysters. Oysters artificially contaminated with E. coli (230 MPN/100 mL, 16.5 C for 15 h) were depurated for 6, 24, and 48 h using ESW and UV irradiated seawater. E. coli counts in artificially contaminated oysters decreased to below the detection limit (30 E. coli MPN/100 g) after depuration with ESW for 24 h or UV irradiated seawater for 6 h. In experiments on naturally contaminated oysters E. coli counts decreased to below detection limits after depuration with ESW for 24 h. From these results, electrolysis of seawater is a useful method for post harvest elimination of E. coli from oysters.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis


The efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) for reducing microbial contamination on fresh-cut cilantro was investigated in this study. The impacts of SAEW on the microbes of cilantro samples inoculated with two kinds of bacteria (Escherichia coli O78 and Bacillus subtilis 1.1849) were evaluated in comparison with NaClO solution and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW). Dipping with AEW, SAEW and NaClO solutions for 5 min resulted in a reduction in populations of E. coli O78 from 6.38 to 4.93, 3.89 and 4.88 log10 cfu/g and in populations of B. subtilis from 6.52 to 5.02, 4.98, 4.63 log10 cfu/g, respectively, The similar results were found that the populations on cilantro inoculated the mixture of two microbes of E. coli O78 treated with AEW, SAEW and NaClO solutions decreased to 4.15, 3.99, 5.10 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and the populations of B. subtili on cilantro decreased to 5.08,4.97,4.82 log10 cfu/g, respectively. The efficacies of SAEW wash in reducing natural micro flora on fresh-cut cilantro were studied. The results showed SAEW had strong disinfection ability to reduce the microbe population of fresh-cut cilantro and could be an alternative of AEW and NaClO solutions.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The objective of this study was to determine the synergistic effect of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid with mild heat against background and pathogenic microorganisms on carrots. Shredded carrots were inoculated with approximately 6 7 log CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (932, and 933) and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116, and 19111) and then dip treated with alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), deionized water (DaIW), or 1% citric acid (CA) alone or with combinations of AlEW and 1% CA (AlEW + CA). The populations of spoilage bacteria on the carrots were investigated after various exposure times (1, 3, and 5 min) and treatment at different dipping temperatures (1, 20, 40, and 50 C) and then optimal condition (3 min at 50 C) was applied against foodborne pathogens on the carrots. When compared to the untreated control, treatment AcEW most effectively reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast and fungi, followed by AlEW and 100 ppm NaOCl. Exposure to all treatments for 3 min significantly reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast and fungi on the carrots. As the dipping temperature increased from 1 C to 50 C, the reductions of total bacteria, yeast and fungi increased significantly from 0.22 to 2.67 log CFU/g during the wash treatment (p 0.05). The combined 1% citric acid and AlEW treatment at 50 C showed a reduction of the total bacterial count and the yeast and fungi of around 3.7 log CFU/g, as well as effective reduction of L. monocytogenes (3.97 log CFU/g), and E. Coli O157:H7 (4 log CFU/g). Combinations of alkaline electrolyzed water and citric acid better maintained the sensory and microbial quality of the fresh-cut carrots and enhanced the overall shelf-life of the produce.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed (SAEO) water in killing or removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes by washing and chilling treatment simulating protocols used in food service kitchens. Whole lettuce leaves and tomatoes were spot-inoculated with 100 L of a mixture of 5 strains of E. coli O157:H7. Washing lettuce with SAEO water for 15 s reduced the pathogen by 1.4 to 1.6 log CFU/leaf, but the treatments did not completely inactivate the pathogen in the wash solution. Increasing the washing time to 30 s increased the reductions to 1.7 to 2.3 log CFU/leaf. Sequential washing in SAEO water for 15 s and then chilling in SAEO water for 15 min also increased the reductions to 2.0 to 2.4 log CFU/leaf, and no cell survived in chilling solution after treatment. Washing tomatoes with SAEO water for 8 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 5.4 to 6.3 log CFU/tomato. The reductions were increased to 6.6 to 7.6 log CFU/tomato by increasing the washing time to 15 s. Results suggested that application of SAEO water to wash and chill lettuce and tomatoes in food service kitchens could minimize cross-contamination and reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 present on the produce.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Salmonella choleraesuis


Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution) is the most common disinfectant used in the fresh-cut industry, however, environmental and health risks related to its use have resulted in a need to find new sanitizers. Electrolyzed water (EW) is a promising alternative, showing a broad spectrum of microbial decontamination. In this study the efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) as disinfectants of apple slices inoculated with Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua or Salmonella choleraesuis, individually or in a mixture, were compared to that of sodium hypochlorite solution and distilled water. Apple slices were inoculated with a 107 cfu/mL suspension of the pathogens and treated with diluted electrolyzed water. Bactericidal activity of washing treatments was assessed after 30 min and after storage for 5 days at 4 C. AEW and NEW disinfection efficacy was compared to that of washings with sodium hypochlorite at the same free chlorine concentration and with distilled water. AEW diluted to 100 mg/L of free chlorine was the treatment with the highest bactericidal activity in all tested conditions (reductions obtained ranged from 1.2 to 2.4 log units) followed by NEW and AEW at 100 and 50 mg/L of free chlorine respectively. In general these treatments were equal or more effective than sodium hypochlorite washings at 100 mg/L of free chlorine. The effect of the different sanitizer washings when pathogens where in a mixture was similar to that which occurred when pathogens were individually inoculated. The effectiveness of all washings slightly decreased when apple slices were stored for 5 days at 4 C.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.


The sanitization efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against food pathogens on selected fresh ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and sprouts was evaluated and compared to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. RTE vegetables and sprouts were dip-inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella spp. and dip-treated with SAEW, NaOCl solution for 5 min. SAEW treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria from Chinese celery, lettuce and daikon sprouts by 2.7, 2.5 and 2.45 log10CFU/g, respectively relative to un-treated. Pathogens were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from Chinese celery, lettuce and daikon sprouts by 2.7, 2.8 and 2.8 log10CFU/g (E. coli) and 2.87, 2.91 and 2.91 log10CFU/g (Salmonella spp.), respectively following a SAEW treatment. SAEW and NaOCl solution showed no significant sanitization difference (p > 0.05). Results demonstrate that SAEW at low chlorine concentration and a near neutral pH is a potential non-thermal food sanitizer that could represent an alternative to NaOCl solution and would reduce the amount of free chlorine used in fresh-cut vegetables industry, since the same microbial reduction as NaOCl solution is obtained.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Bacillus cereus


In this study we investigated the effects of low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) and several other sanitizers (strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW), aqueous ozone (AO), 1% citric acid (CA) and sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl)) on the inactivation of natural microflora (total aerobic bacteria counts (TBC) and yeasts and moulds (YM)) and foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Bacillus cereus) on oyster mushroom. The effects of temperature and treatment time on the antimicrobial activity of LcEW to reduce the populations of foodborne pathogens were also determined. LcEW showed the strongest bactericidal efficacy among all the sanitizers on TBC, YM and pathogens by reductions of 1.35, 1.08 and 1.90 2.16 log CFU/g after 3 min treatment at room temperature (23 2 C), respectively. There was no significant difference between the antimicrobial effects of LcEW and SAEW (P > 0.05). Among those sanitizers, their relative influence of inactivation was LcEW > NaOCl > CA > AO.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis


High microbial populations on mung beans and its sprouts are the primary reason of a short shelf life of these products, and potentially present pathogens may cause human illness outbreak. The efficiency for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) and Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis), which were artificially inoculated on mung bean seeds and sprouts, by means of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0 to 6.5) generated through electrolysis of a mixture of NaCl and hydrochloric acid solution in a non-membrane electrolytic chamber, was evaluated at the different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs, 20-120 mg/l) and treatment time (3-15 min), respectively. The effect of SAEW treatment on the viability of seeds was also determined. Results indicate that the ACC had more significant effect on the bactericidal activity of SAEW for reducing both pathogens on the seeds and sprouts compared to treatment time (P < 0.05). The seeds and sprouts treated with SAEW at ACCs of 20 and 80 mg/l resulted in a reduction of 1.32-1.78 log10 CFU/g and 3.32-4.24 log10 CFU/g for E. coli, while 1.27-1.76 log10 CFU/g and 3.12-4.19 log10 CFU/g for S. enteritidis, respectively. The germination percentage of mung bean seeds was not significantly affected by the treatment of SAEW at an ACC of 20 mg/l for less than 10 min (P > 0.05). The finding of this study implies that SAEW with a near-neutral pH value and low available chlorine is an effective method to reduce foodborne pathogens on seeds and sprouts with less effects on the viability of seeds.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella


The sanitization efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) against food pathogens on 2.7, 2.8 and 2.8 log10CFU/g (E. coli) and 2.87, 2.91 and 2.91 log10CFU/g (Salmonella spp.), respectively following a SAEW treatment. SAEW and NaOCl solution showed no significant sanitization difference (p > 0.05). Results demonstrate that SAEW at low chlorine concentration and a near neutral pH is a potential non-thermal food sanitizer that could represent an s industry, since the same microbial reduction as NaOCl solution is obtained.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas putida


This study investigated the efficacy of sanitized ice for the reduction of bacteria in the water collected from the ice that melted during storage of whole and filleted Tilapia fish. Also, bacterial reductions on the fish fillets were investigated. The sanitized ice was prepared by freezing solutions of PROSAN (an organic acid formulation) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW). For the whole fish study, the survival of the natural microflora was determined from the water of the melted ice prepared with PROSAN and tap water. These water samples were collected during an 8 h storage period. For the fish fillet study, samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli K12, Listeria innocua, and Pseudomonas putida then stored on crushed sanitized ice. The efficacies of these were tested by enumerating each bacterial species on the fish fillet and in the water samples at 12 and 24 h intervals for 72 h, respectively. Results showed that each bacterial population was reduced during the test. However, a bacterial reduction of < 1 log CFU was obtained for the fillet samples. A maximum of approximately 2 log CFU and > 3 log CFU reductions were obtained in the waters sampled after the storage of whole fish and the fillets, respectively. These reductions were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the water from sanitized ice when compared with the water from the unsanitized melted ice. These results showed that the organic acid formulation and NEW considerably reduced the bacterial numbers in the melted ice and thus reduced the potential for crosscontamination.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium


Strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) has a very limited application due to its low pH value (< 2.7) and corrosive characteristics. Thus, we developed new low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW). The efficacy of LcEW under various treatment conditions for the inactivation of different foodborne pathogens in pure culture was evaluated and compared with SAEW. The efficiency of LcEW and SAEW for the inactivation of predominant foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium) with different dipping times (1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 min), pH values (2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 9.0) and temperatures (4, 15, 23, 35 and 50 C) were determined. Reductions of bacterial populations of 1.7 to 6.6 log10 CFU/mL in various treated conditions in cell suspensions were observed after treatment with LcEW and SAEW, compared to the untreated control. Dip washing (1 min at 35 C) of lettuce leaves in both electrolyzed water resulted in 2.5 to 4.0 log10 CFU/g compared to the unwashed control. Strong inactivation effects were observed in LcEW, and no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between LcEW and SAEW. The effective form of chlorine compounds in LcEW was almost exclusively hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which has strong antimicrobial activity and leaves no residuals due to the low concentration of residual chlorine. Thus, LcEW could be widely applied as a new sanitizer in the food industry.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus


The use of different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs) of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW; 0.5 to 30 mg/



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The efficacy of newly developed low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW) was investigated to inactivate the pathogens on spinach leaves as a convenient and safe alternative sanitizer and it was compared to other sanitizers. Spinach leaves were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes and dip treated with deionized water (DIW), LcEW, strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW), aqueous ozone (AO), 1% citric acid (CA) and sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) for 3 min at room temperature (23 +/- 2 C). For all pathogens, the similar pattern of microbial reduction on spinach was apparent with LcEW and SAEW washing. In the present study, it was found that LcEW inactivated, at maximum, 1.64-2.80 log cfu/g and DIW resulted in lowest reduction, 0.31-0.95 log cfu/g of background or pathogenic microflora present on spinach leaves compared to the unwashed control. The findings of this study indicate that LcEW and SAEW did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in reducing background or pathogenic microflora on spinach and LcEW may be a promising sanitizer for washing vegetables without environmental pollution instead of using electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water or SAEW.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus


Suspension quantitative germicidal test showed that electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) was an efficient and rapid disinfectant. Disinfection rates towards E. coli (available chlorine concentration ACC: 12.40 mg/L) and Staphylococcus aureus (ACC: 37.30 mg/L) could reach 100% at 1 and 3 min, respectively. Disinfection mechanism of EO water was investigated at a molecular biological level by detecting a series of biochemical indices. The results showed that the dehydrogenase activities of E. coli and S. aureus decreased rapidly, respectively, at the rates of 45.9% and 32% in the 1st minute treatment with EO water. EO water also improved the bacterial membrane permeability, causing the rise of conductivities and the rapid leakages of intracellular DNA, K+, and proteins in 1 min. The leakages of DNA and K+ tended to slow down after about 1 min while those of proteins began to decrease a little after reaching the peak values. The sodium dodecyl sulfonate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that EO water destroyed intracellular proteins. The protein bands got fainter and even disappeared as the treatment proceeded. EO water s effects on the bacterial ultrastructures were also verified by the transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) photos. The disinfection mechanism of EO water was composed of several comprehensive factors including the destruction of bacterial protective barriers, the increase of membrane permeability, the leakage of cellular inclusions, and the activity decrease of some key enzymes.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus


The bactericidal effect of slightly acidic hypochlorous water (SAHW) on Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus, as well as some bacterial strains isolated from fresh lettuce was evaluated. Viable counts of all tested bacterial samples decreased immediately after treatment by SAHW. Most bacterial cells with the exception of B. cereus, and S. aureus were not culturable on TSA after treatment by 1 to 30 mg/L SAHW. Likewise, Pseudomonas sp., and Flavobacterium or Xanthomonas sp., Kurthia sp., Micrococcus sp., and Corynebacterium or Microbacterium sp. were not culturable on TSA after treatment by 30 mg/L SAHW. Viable counts of S. aureus, E. coli, Flavobacterium or Xanthomonas sp., and Pseudomonas sp. showed a 5 to 6 log cfu/mL reduction at day 0 and maintained a count of less than 1 log cfu/mL from day 1 to day 7 following treatment by 30 mg/L SAHW. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 0.5-1.0 mg/L) decreased the viable counts of S. Enteritidis to less than the lower limit of detection, 1 log cfu/mL, from day 1 to day 7 following treatment by 1 mg/L. NaOCl was not sufficient at 0.5-0.75 mg/L in reducing viable counts of S. Enteritidis because of a 2 to 5 log cfu/mL increase from day 2 to day 5 due to recovery from injury. Initial counts of S. Enteritidis after hydrogen



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp.


In the current study, the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on an in vitro inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella spp. was evaluated and compared with other sanitizers. SAEW (pH 5.6, 23 mg/l available chlorine concentration; ACC; and 940 mV oxidation reduction potential; ORP) was generated by electrolysis of dilute solution of HCl (2%) in a chamber of a non-membrane electrolytic cell. One milliliter of bacteria suspension (ca. 10-11 log10CFU/ml) was mixed with 9 ml of SAEW, strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW; ca. 50 mg/l ACC), sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl; ca.120 mg/l ACC) and distilled water (DW) as control and treated for 60 s. SAEW effectively reduced the population of E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. by 5.1, 4.8, and 5.2 log10CFU/ml. Although, ACC of SAEW was more than 5 times lower than that of NaOCl solution, they showed no significant bactericidal difference (p > 0.05). However, the bactericidal effect of StAEW was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than SAEW and NaOCl solution in all cases. When tested with each individual test solution, E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. reductions were not significantly different (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that SAEW with low available chlorine concentration can equally inactivate E. coli, S. aureus and Salmonella spp. as NaOCl solution and therefore SAEW shows a high potential of application in agriculture and food industry as an environmentally friendly disinfection agent.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli


Antimicrobial effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW: pH 5.6 0.1, 20.5 1.3 mg/L available chlorine concentration; ACC) against indigenous aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on fresh strawberry was assessed. The antimicrobial effect of SAEW was compared with that of strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. SAEW effectively reduced total aerobic mesophilic bacteria from strawberries by 1.68 log10CFU/g and was not significantly different from that ofNaOCl solution (p > 0.05). Antimicrobial effect of SAEW against Salmonella spp. andE. coli was indicated by a more than 2 log10CFU/g reduction of their population andthe effect was not significantly different from that of NaOCl solution and StAEW at similar treatment conditions (p > 0.05). From these findings, SAEW with a near-neutral pH and low available chlorine concentration exhibits an equivalent bactericidal effectiveness to NaOCl solution and thus SAEW is a potential sanitizer that would be used as an alternative for StAEW and NaOCl solution in the fresh fruit and vegetables industry.



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Microbe(s): Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157 : H7


Effects of alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), deionized water (DIW), 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA), in reducing the populations of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens on cabbage were investigated at various dipping times (3, 5, and 10 min) with different dipping temperatures (1, 20, 40, and 50 C). Inhibitory effect of the selected optimal treatment against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157 : H7 on cabbage were also evaluated. Compared to the untreated control, AlEW treatment most effectively reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast, and mold, followed by AcEW and 100-ppm NaClO treatments. All treatments dip washed for 5 min significantly reduced the numbers of total bacteria, yeast, and mold on cabbage. With increasing dipping temperature from 1 to 50 C, the reductions of total bacteria, yeast, and mold were significantly increased from 0.19 to 1.12 log CFU/g in the DIW wash treatment (P < 0.05). Combined 1% CA with AlEW treatment at 50 C showed the reduction of around 3.98 and 3.45 log CFU/g on the total count, and yeast and mold, effective reduction of L. monocytogenes (3.99 log CFU/g), and E. coli O157 : H7 (4.19 log CFU/g) on cabbage. The results suggest that combining AlEW with CA could be a possible method to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria effectively on produce.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


Inoculated strawberries were treated with deionized water (control), electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (23 and 55 mg/L of residual chlorine), and chlorinated water (55 mg/L of residual chlorine), either with or without ultrasonication. Inoculated broccoli was treated with EO water containing 55 and 100 mg/L of residual chlorine and chlorinated water with 100 mg/L of residual chlorine. Treatments were conducted for 1 and 5 min at temperatures of 4 and 24C, respectively. Dipping strawberries and broccoli into EO water or chlorinated water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the Escherichia coli O157:H7 counts compared with inoculated controls. Dipping inoculated strawberries with chlorinated water or EO water with ultrasonication reduced E. coli O157:H7 cells by 0.7 to 1.9 log cfu/g depending on the treatment time and treatment solution temperature. Dipping inoculated broccoli into chlorinated water or EO water with ultrasonication for 1 or 5 min reduced the bacterial population by 1.2 to 2.2 log cfu/g. Significant (P < 0.05) reductions in pathogen populations were observed when produce was treated with EO water in conjunction with ultrasonication. Results revealed that EO water was either more than or as effective as chlorinated water in killing E. coli O157:H7 cells on strawberries and broccoli.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus


The use of different available chlorine concentrations (ACCs) of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW; 0.5 to 30 mg/liter), different treatment times, and different temperatures for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. The morphology of both pathogens also was analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. A 3-min treatment with SAEW (pH 6.0 to 6.5) at ACCs of 2 mg/liter for E. coli O157:H7 and 8 mg/liter for S. aureus resulted in 100% inactivation of two cultures (7.92- to 8.75-log reduction) at 25 C. The bactericidal activity of SAEW was independent of the treatment time and temperature at a higher ACC (P > 0.05). E. coli O157:H7 was much more sensitive than S. aureus to SAEW. The morphological damage to E. coli O157:H7 cells by SAEW was significantly greater than that to S. aureus cells. At an ACC as high as 30 mg/liter, E. coli O157:H7 cells were damaged, but S. aureus cells retained their structure and no cell wall damage or shrinkage was observed. SAEW with a near neutral pH may be a promising disinfectant for inactivation of foodborne pathogens.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


Treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables with electrolyzed water (EW) has been shown to kill or reduce foodborne pathogens. We evaluated the efficacy of EW in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, cabbage, lemons, and tomatoes by using washing and/or chilling treatments simulating those followed in some food service kitchens. Greatest reduction levels on lettuce were achieved by sequentially washing with 14-A (amperage) acidic EW (AcEW) for 15 or 30 s followed by chilling in 16-A AcEW for 15 min. This procedure reduced the pathogen by 2.8 and 3.0 log CFU per leaf, respectively, whereas washing and chilling with tap water reduced the pathogen by 1.9 and 2.4 log CFU per leaf. Washing cabbage leaves for 15 or 30 s with tap water or 14-A AcEW reduced the pathogen by 2.0 and 3.0 log CFU per leaf and 2.5 to 3.0 log CFU per leaf, respectively. The pathogen was reduced by 4.7 log CFU per lemon by washing with 14-A AcEW and 4.1 and 4.5 log CFU per lemon by washing with tap water for 15 or 30 s. A reduction of 5.3 log CFU per lemon was achieved by washing with 14-A alkaline EW for 15 s prior to washing with 14-A AcEW for 15 s. Washing tomatoes with tap water or 14-A AcEW for 15 s reduced the pathogen by 6.4 and 7.9 log CFU per tomato, respectively. Application of AcEW using procedures mimicking food service operations should help minimize cross-contamination and reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 being present on produce at the time of consumption.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis


This study investigated residual bacteria and different food types left on tableware items after various washing and sanitization protocols. Escherichia coli K-12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis were inoculated into whole milk and soft cream cheese. The milk was used to contaminate regular drinking glasses and the cheese was used to contaminate plates and silverware. These tableware items were washed in manual (43 C) and mechanical (49 C) washers and sanitized with different sanitizers (24 C) for 5 s. Quaternary ammonium compound, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), and a combination of citric acid with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (acidic formulation) were used as the chemical sanitizers. Tap water was used as a control. Results showed that at least 5-log reductions in both bacterial numbers were achieved for all sanitizers in both types of washers, except for the control. With mechanical dishwashing, the NEW and acidic formulation treatments reduced bacterial populations by >6.9 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. With the manual operation, bacterial numbers were reduced by >5.4 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. This study revealed that NEW and the acidic formulation are as effective as the other chemical sanitizers for food contact surface sanitization in manual and mechanical ware washing.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


This study compared the efficacy of chlorine (20 200 ppm), acidic electrolyzed water (50 ppm chlorine, pH 2.6), acidified sodium chlorite (20 200 ppm chlorite ion concentration, Sanova ), and aqueous chlorine dioxide (20 200 ppm chlorite ion concentration, TriNova ) washes in reducing populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on artificially inoculated lettuce. Fresh-cut leaves of Romaine or Iceberg lettuce were inoculated by immersion in water containing E. coli O157:H7 (8 log CFU/ml) for 5 min and dried in a salad spinner. Leaves (25 g) were then washed for 2 min, immediately or following 24 h of storage at 4 C. The washing treatments containing chlorite ion concentrations of 100 and 200 ppm were the most effective against E. coli O157:H7 populations on Iceberg lettuce, with log reductions as high as 1.25 log CFU/g and 1.05 log CFU/g for TriNova and Sanova wash treatments, respectively. All other wash treatments resulted in population reductions of less than 1 log CFU/g. Chlorine (200 ppm), TriNova , Sanova , and acidic electrolyzed water were all equally effective against E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine, with log reductions of ~ 1 log CFU/g. The 20 ppm chlorine wash was as effective as the deionized water wash in reducing populations of E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine and Iceberg lettuce. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that E. coli O157:H7 that was incorporated into biofilms or located in damage lettuce tissue remained on the lettuce leaf, while individual cells on undamaged leaf surfaces were more likely to be washed away.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes


Acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW) has strong bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, the efficacy of AC-EW is influenced by soil or other organic materials present. This study examined the bactericidal activity of AC-EW in the presence of organic matter, in the form of bovine serum against foodborne pathogens on the surfaces of green onions and tomatoes. Green onions and tomatoes were inoculated with a culture cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Treatment of these organisms with AC-EW containing bovine serum concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml/l was performed for 15 s, 30 s, 1 min, 3 min and 5 min. The total residual chlorine concentrations of AC-EW decreased proportional to the addition of serum. The bactericidal activity of AC-EW also decreased with increasing bovine serum concentration, whereas unamended AC-EW treatment reduced levels of cells to below the detection limit (0.7 logCFU/g) within 3 min.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis


Neutral (NEW) and acidic (AEW) electrolyzed water were stored in open or closed glass bottles under light or dark conditions at 20 C for 30 days. The pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), available chlorine concentration (ACC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and bactericidal efficiency of NEW and AEW were determined during storage or before and after storage, respectively. The pH and EC of NEW and AEW remained unchanged in storage. The ORP, ACC and DO of AEW decreased 22%, 100% and 52% under open storage conditions, respectively. Light had no significant effects on the physicochemical properties of NEW (P > 0.05). Bactericidal efficiency was not markedly affected by storage conditions for NEW, but decreased significantly for AEW under open storage conditions. Electrolyzed water should be stored in closed containers or used immediately to prevent the loss of available chlorine that is one of the main contributing factors for antimicrobial activity.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis


Food safety issues and increases in food borne illnesses have promulgated the development of new sanitation methods to eliminate pathogenic organisms on foods and surfaces in food service areas. Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) shows promise as an environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination agent. EO water is generated by the passage of a dilute salt solution (1% NaCl) through an electrochemical cell. This electrolytic process converts chloride ions and water molecules into chlorine oxidants (Cl2, HOCl/ClO-). At a near-neutral pH (pH 6.3-6.5), the predominant chemical species is the highly biocidal hypochlorous acid species (HOCl) with the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of the solution ranging from 800 to 900 mV. The biocidal activity of near-neutral EO water was evaluated at 25 C using pure cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis. Treatment of these organisms, in pure culture, with EO water at concentrations of 20, 50, 100, and 120 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) and 10 min of contact time resulted in 100% inactivation of all five organisms (reduction of 6.1-6.7 log10 CFU/mL). Spray treatment of surfaces in food service areas with EO water containing 278-310 ppm TRC (pH 6.38) resulted in a 79-100% reduction of microbial growth. Dip (10 min) treatment of spinach at 100 and 120 ppm TRC resulted in a 4.0-5.0 log10 CFU/mL reduction of bacterial counts for all organisms tested. Dipping (10 min) of lettuce at 100 and 120 ppm TRC reduced bacterial counts of E. coli by 0.24-0.25 log10 CFU/mL and reduced all other organisms by 2.43-3.81 log10 CFU/mL.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes


The ability of electrolyzed water (EW) to inactivate foodborne pathogens on the surfaces of lettuce and spinach was investigated. Lettuce and spinach leaves were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains each of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and treated with acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AK-EW), alkaline electrolyzed water followed by acidic electrolyzed water (sequential treatment, AK-EW + AC-EW), deionized water followed by acidic electrolyzed water (sequential treatment, DW + AC-EW), and deionized water (control, DW) for 15, 30 s, and 1, 3, and 5 min at room temperature (22 2 C). For all 3 pathogens, the same pattern of microbial reduction on lettuce and spinach were apparent. The relative efficacy of reduction was AC-EW > DW + AC-EW = AK-EW + AC-EW > AK-EW > control. After a 3-min treatment of AC-EW, the 3 tested pathogens were reduced below the detection limit (0.7 log). DW + AC-EW and AK-EW + AC-EW produced the same levels of reduction after 5 min when compared to the control. AK-EW did not reduce levels of pathogens even after a 5-min treatment on lettuce and spinach. Results suggest that AC-EW treatment was able to significantly reduce populations of the 3 tested pathogens from the surfaces of lettuce and spinach with increasing time of exposure.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Erwinia carotovora


Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 108, 107 or 105 cfu ml 1, depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted NEW (containing approximately 50 ppm of free chlorine, pH 8.60) against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, L. innocua and E. carotovora on lettuce was similar to that of chlorinated water (120 ppm of free chlorine) with reductions of 1 2 log units. There were generally no significant differences when treating lettuce with NEW for 1 and 3 min. Neither inoculation dose (107 or 105 cfu ml 1) influenced the bacterial reduction achieved. Treating fresh-cut lettuce, carrot, endive, corn salad and Four seasons salad with NEW 1:5 (containing about 50 ppm of free chlorine) was equally effective as applying chlorinated water at 120 ppm. Microbial reduction depended on the vegetable tested: NEW and sodium hypochlorite treatments were more effective on carrot and endive than on iceberg lettuce, Four seasons salad and corn salad. The reductions of indigenous microbiota were smaller than those obtained with the artificially inoculated bacteria tested (0.5 1.2 log reduction). NEW seems to be a promising disinfection method as it would allow to reduce the amount of free chlorine used for the disinfection of fresh-cut produce by the food industry, as the same microbial reduction as sodium hypochlorite is obtained. This would constitute a safer, in situ , and easier to handle way of ensuring food safety.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes


Recent foodborne outbreaks implicating spinach and lettuce have increased consumer concerns regarding the safety of fresh produce. While the most common commercial antimicrobial intervention for fresh produce is wash water containing 50 to 200 ppm chlorine, this study compares the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite, chlorine, and acidic electrolyzed water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto leafy greens. Fresh mixed greens were left uninoculated or inoculated with approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes and treated by immersion for 60 or 90 s in different wash solutions (1:150, wt/vol), including 50 ppm of chlorine solution acidified to pH 6.5, acidic electrolyzed water (pH 2.1 0.2, oxygen reduction potential of 1,100 mV, 30 to 35 ppm of free chlorine), and acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm, pH 2.5). Samples were neutralized and homogenized. Bacterial survival was determined by standard spread plating on selective media. Each test case (organism treatment time) was replicated twice with five samples per replicate. There was no difference (P 0.05) in the time of immersion on the antimicrobial effectiveness of the treatments. Furthermore, there was no difference (P 0.05) in survival of the three organisms regardless of treatment or time. Acidified sodium chlorite, resulted in reductions in populations of 3 to 3.8 log CFU/g and was more effective than chlorinated water (2.1 to 2.8 log CFU/g reduction). These results provide the produce industry with important information to assist in selection of effective antimicrobial strategies.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


The Nernst equations between the oxidation reduction potential (ORP), the concentration of hypochlorous acid and chlorine and the value of pH in electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) were developed in three parts, which were in agreement in the measured values. The role of ORP in EOW for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied. The inactivation effect of EOW on E. coli O157:H7 was also studied by spectroscopy measurements, and the inactivation mechanism was proposed.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus


This study evaluated the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW; 64.1 mg/liter of active chlorine) to reduce populations of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes on plastic and wooden kitchen cutting boards. Its effectiveness was compared with that of a sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO; 62.3 mg/liter of active chlorine). Inoculated portions of cutting boards were rinsed in either NEW or NaClO solutions, or deionized water (control). Plastic boards were rinsed for 1 min and wooden boards for 1 and 5 min. After each treatment, the surviving population of each strain was determined on the surface and in the soaking water. No significant difference (P 0.05) was found between the final populations of each strain with regard to the treatment solutions (NEW or NaClO). However, a significant difference (P 0.05) was revealed between surface materials after 1 min of washing. Whereas in plastic boards the initial bacterial populations were reduced by 5 log CFU/50 cm2, in wooden cutting boards they underwent a reduction of <3 log CFU/50 cm2. A 5-min exposure time yielded reductions of about 4 log CFU/50 cm2. The surviving populations of all bacteria in NEW and NaClO washing solutions were <1 log CFU/ml after soaking both surfaces. This study revealed that NEW treatment is an effective method for reducing microbial contamination on plastic and wooden cutting boards. NEW efficacy was comparable to that of NaClO, with the advantage of having a larger storage time.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella


A study was conducted to investigate the effects of spray washing broiler carcasses with acidified electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO) or sodium hypochlorite (HOCl) solutions for 5, 10, or 15 s. Commercial broiler carcasses were contaminated with 0.1 g of broiler cecal contents inoculated with 105 cells of Campylobacter and 105 cells of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella. Numbers of bacteria recovered from unwashed control carcasses were 6.7, 5.9, 6.3, and 3.9 log10 cfu/mL for total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella, respectively. Washing in either EO (50 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite, pH 2.4, oxidation reduction potential of 1,180 mV) or HOCl (50 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite, pH 8.0) significantly reduced the levels of bacteria recovered from carcasses (P < 0.05). Carcasses washed with EO had slightly lower levels of total aerobic bacteria (0.3 log10 cfu/mL) and E. coli (0.2 log10 cfu/mL) than HOCl-treated carcasses; however, populations of Campylobacter and Salmonella were comparable after washing in either solution. Increasing the carcass washing time from 5 to 10 s lowered the levels of total aerobic bacteria (6.1 vs. 5.8 log10 cfu/mL), E. coli (4.6 vs. 4.1 log10 cfu/mL), Campylobacter (5.2 vs. 4.2 log10 cfu/mL), and Salmonella (2.0 vs. 1.2 log10 cfu/mL), but no further microbiological reductions occurred when washing time was extended from 10 to 15 s. Data from the present study show that washing poultry carcasses with EO is slightly better (total aerobic bacteria and E. coli) or equivalent to (Campylobacter and Salmonella) washing with HOCl. Washing broiler carcasses for a period equivalent to 2 inside-outside bird washers (10 s) provided greater reductions in carcass bacterial populations than periods simulating 1 (5 s) or 3 inside-outside bird washers (15 s).



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


Antibacterial activity of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water prepared from 0.05% or 0.10% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions against indigenous bacteria associated with fresh strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) was evaluated. The efficacy of EO water and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution in eliminating and controlling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto strawberries stored at 4 +/- 1 C up to 15 d was investigated at exposure time of 1, 5, or 10 min. Posttreatment neutralization of fruit surfaces was also determined. More than 2 log10 CFU/g reductions of aerobic mesophiles were obtained in fruits washed for 10 or 15 min in EO water prepared from 0.10% (w/v) NaCl solution. Bactericidal activity of the disinfectants against L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was not affected by posttreatment neutralization, and increasing exposure time did not significantly increase the antibacterial efficacy against both pathogens. While washing fruit surfaces with distilled water resulted in 1.90 and 1.27 log10 CFU/mL of rinse fluid reduction of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7, respectively, > 2.60 log10 CFU/mL of rinse fluid reduction of L. monocytogenes and up to 2.35 and 3.12 log10 CFU/mL of rinse fluid reduction of E. coli O157:H7 were observed on fruit surfaces washed with EO water and NaOCl solution, respectively. Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased over storage regardless of prior treatment. However, EO water and aqueous NaOCl did not show higher antimicrobial potential than water treatment during refrigeration storage.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes


Shredded carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes and washed for 1 or 2 min with chlorine (Cl; 200 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PA; 40 ppm) or acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 100, 200, 500 ppm) under simulated commercial processing conditions. After washed, the carrots were spin dried, packaged and stored at 5 C for up to 10 days. Bacterial enumeration was significantly (P 0.05) reduced by 1, 1.5 and 2.5 log CFU/g after washing with ASC 100, 250 and 500 ppm, respectively. All sanitizers reduced pathogen load below that of tap water wash and unwashed controls. During storage at 5 C the bacterial load of all treatments increased gradually, but to different extent in different treatments. ASC inhibited bacterial growth more effectively than the other sanitizers and also maintained the lowest pathogen counts (<1 log CFU/g) during storage. Organic matter in the process water significantly (P 0.05) reduced the antibacterial efficacy of Cl, but not that of PA or ASC. Therefore, ASC shows the potential to be used as a commercial sanitizer for washing shredded carrots.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


Electrolyzed - oxidizing (EO) water is a relatively new method that has been utilized for killing pathogens in agriculture, medical sterilization and food sanitation. This water is generated by passing sodium chloride solution through EO water generator. In this study, the EO water was used to treat holy basil inoculated with Escherichia coli. The initial pH and oxidation - reduction potential (ORP) of EO water were 2.09 and 1200 mV, respectively. The treatments changed ORP to 800,950 and 1100 mV. The contact times were 10,30 and 60 min. In pure culture, E. coli viable counts in the sample treated with EO water were reduced to undetectable levels at all ORP and times. However no reduction in E. coli counts was achieved in the control sample (treated with deionized water). The initial population of E. coli was about 8.5 log10 CFU / ml which was inoculated on 5 g of holy basil. Results showed that the treatment treated with EO water was reduced about 2 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 800 and 950 mV, 4 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 1100 mV for 10 min. When the contact time increased to 30 min, the reduction of E. coli count was about 3 log 10 CFU / ml in ORP 950 mV and 5 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 1100 mV. But the reduction was not different from 10 min when treated with ORP 800 mV. When the contact time increased to 60 min, the reduction of E. coli count was about 3 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 800 mV, 4 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 950 mV. and 6 log10 CFU / ml in ORP 1100 mV. These results could be concluded that the ORP of EO water and contact time significantly inactivated E. coli.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus


For reducing bacterial contamination, electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) has been used to reduce microbial population on seafood and platform of fish retailer. The specimens of tilapia were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and then soaked into EO water for up to 10 min. EO water achieved additional 0.7 log CFU/cm2 reduction than tap water on E. coli after 1 min treatment and additional treatment time did not achieved additional reduction. EO water treatment also reduced V. parahaemolyticus, by 1.5 log CFU/cm2 after 5 min treatment and achieved 2.6 log CFU/cm2 reduction after 10 min. The pathogenic bacteria were not detected in EO water after soaking treatment. In addition, EO water could effectively disinfect the platform of fish retailer in traditional markets and fish markets.



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Microbe(s): Total Microbial Count, Total Aerobic Bacteria, Coliforms, Escherichia coli


The effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing anode (EOA) water (oxidation-reduction potential, 1,120 mV; pH 2.0) as a sanitizer for use in abattoirs was compared with the iodophor (IOD) Mikroklene (25 ppm), a sanitizer approved for use by regulatory authorities in Canada and the United States. A total of 240 swab (100 cm2) samples were obtained from 4 sites on the kill floor and 16 sites in the secondary processing areas, during two visits within a 4-week period to each of three meat packing plants, processing < or =50 animals per week. Swabs were obtained 12 h after the application of IOD and EOA and were analyzed for the presence of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, and total Escherichia coli. Total aerobic bacteria (log CFU/ 100 cm2) recovered from the 20 sample sites were lower (P < 0.0001) in EOA as compared with IOD (2.94 +/- 0.12 versus 3.75 +/- 0.12, respectively). Plant A was 1.5 times more likely (P < 0.0001) to have a sampling site positive for the presence of coliforms and E. coli than plants B and C. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatment IOD or EOA in the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for the presence of total coliforms or E. coli among the three plants. When the kill floor and secondary processing areas are compared, the likelihood of obtaining a sample positive for coliforms or E. coli was similar (P > or = 0.05). Results indicate that EOA was more effective than IOD in reducing populations of total aerobic bacteria on equipment surfaces in the three meat packing plants studied. Because the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for coliforms or E. coli in EOA as compared with IOD was similar, EOA may be a suitable alternative or complement to IOD as a sanitizer in small- to medium-sized abattoirs. Additional research is required to further evaluate the effectiveness of EOA to sanitize processing equipment on the basis of subsequent isolation of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli from meat products.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7, Listeria monocytogenes


Raw fish is prone to the risk of microbial outbreaks due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, it is essential to treat raw fish to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water (EO) is a novel antimicrobial agent containing acidic solution with a pH of 2.6, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) of 1150 mV, and 70 90 ppm free chlorine, and alkaline solution with a pH of 11.4 and ORP of 795 mV. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of acidic EO water treatment and alkaline EO water treatment followed by acidic EO water treatment at various temperatures for the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes Scott A on the muscle and skin surfaces of inoculated salmon fillets. Inoculated salmon fillets were treated with acidic EO water at 22 and 35 C and 90 ppm free-chlorine solution as control at 22 C for 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min. The acidic EO water treatments resulted in a reduction of L. monocytogenes Scott A population in the range of 0.40 log10 CFU/g (60%) at 22 C to 1.12 log10 CFU/g (92.3%) at 35 C. Treatment of inoculated salmon fillets with acidic EO water reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 0.49 log10 CFU/g (67%) at 22 C and 1.07 log10 CFU/g (91.1%) at 35 C. The maximum reduction with chlorine solution (control) was 1.46 log10 CFU/g (96.3%) for E. coli O157:H7 and 1.3 log10 CFU/g (95.3%) for L. monocytogenes Scott A at 64 min. A response surface model was developed for alkaline treatment followed by acidic EO water treatment to predict treatment times in the range of 5 30 min and temperatures in the range of 22 35 C for effective treatment with alkaline EO water followed by acidic water, alkaline and acidic water treatments. Response surface analysis demonstrated maximum log reductions of 1.33 log10 CFU/g (95.3%) for E. coli O157:H7 and 1.09 log10 CFU/g (91.9%) for L. monocytogenes Scott A. Data collected from the treatments was used to develop empirical models as a function of treatment times and temperature for prediction of population of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes Scott A. Correlations (R2) of 0.52 and 0.77 were obtained between model predicted and experimental log10 reduction for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes Scott A reductions, respectively. These results clearly indicated that EO water has a potential to be used for decontamination of raw fish.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus


Aim: To ascertain the efficacy of neutral electrolysed water (NEW) in reducing Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes on glass and stainless steel surfaces. Its effectiveness for that purpose is compared with that of a sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution with similar pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and active chlorine content. Methods and Results: First, the bactericidal activity of NEW was evaluated over pure cultures (8-5 log CFU ml-1) of the abovementioned strains: all of them were reduced by more than 7 log CFU ml-1 within 5 min of exposure either to NEW (63 mg l-1 active chlorine) or to NaClO solution (62 mg l-1 active chlorine). Then, stainless steel and glass surfaces were inoculated with the same strains and rinsed for 1 min in either NEW, NaClO solution or deionized water (control). In the first two cases, the populations of all the strains decreased by more than 6 log CFU 50 cm-2. No significant difference (P 0 05) was found between the final populations of each strain with regard to the treatment solutions (NEW or NaClO solution) or to the type of surface. Conclusions: NEW was revealed to be as effective as NaClO at significantly reducing the presence of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria (in this study, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus) on stainless steel and glass surfaces. Significance and Impact of the Study: NEW has the advantage of being safer than NaClO and easier to handle. Hence, it represents an advantageous alternative for the disinfection of surfaces in the food industry.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli


In 1999 the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (both O157 and non-O157) were estimated to cause more than 6 million illnesses and approximately 9000 deaths each year. However, the most recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report on the sources and incidence of foodborne disease, released in 2004, has shown a dramatic decrease in E. coli O157:H7 infections. Since raw beef products are the most frequently foodborne sources of these pathogens, the results of this report demonstrate that the microbiological quality of raw beef has improved greatly. During the intervening years, post-harvest interventions have continually improved, with new attention to hide decontamination and innovative treatments of carcasses. In addition, a system to hold and test beef trim or ground beef for E. coli O157:H7 before its release into commerce has provided an even greater level of safety. In this paper, we review the latest information on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogens on beef, the evidence identifying the hide as the primary source of pathogens on beef carcasses, the efficacy of various hide and carcass interventions, and other developments that have led or have the potential to lead to even greater improvements in the microbial quality of beef.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella


Cut lettuce dip-inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was treated with alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) at 20 C for 5 min, and subsequently washed with acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) at 20 C for 5 min. Pre-treatment with AlEW resulted in an approximate 1.8 log10 cfu/g reduction of microbial populations, which was significantly (p 0.05) greater than microbial reductions resulting from other pre-treatment solutions, including distilled water and AcEW. Repeated AcEW treatment did not show a significant bacterial reduction. Mildly heated (50 C) sanitizers were compared with normal (20 C) or chilled (4 C) sanitizers for their bactericidal effect. Mildly heated AcEW and chlorinated water (200 ppm free available chlorine) with a treatment period of 1 or 5 min produced equal reductions of pathogenic bacteria of 3 log10 and 4 log10 cfu/g, respectively. The procedure of treating with mildly heated AlEW for 5 min, and subsequent washing with chilled (4 C) AcEW for period of 1 or 5 min resulted in 3 4 log10 cfu/g reductions of both the pathogenic bacterial counts on lettuce. Extending the mild heat pre-treatment time increased the bactericidal effect more than that observed from the subsequent washing time with chilled AcEW. The appearance of the mildly heated lettuce was not deteriorated after the treatment. In this study, we have illustrated the efficacious application of AlEW as a pre-wash agent, and the effective combined use of AlEW and AcEW.



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Microbe(s): Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7


Acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) was used as frozen AcEW (AcEW-ice) for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce. AcEW-ice was prepared from AcEW with 20, 50, 100, and 200 ppm of available chlorine by freezing at 40 C and generated 30, 70, 150, and 240 ppm of chlorine gas (Cl2), respectively. The AcEW-ice was placed into styrene-foam containers with lettuce samples at 20 C for 24 h. Although AcEW-ice generating 30 ppm Cl2 had no effect on L. monocytogenes cell counts, AcEW-ice generating 70 to 240 ppm of Cl2 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced L. monocytogenes by ca. 1.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 cell counts were reduced by 1.0 log CFU/g with AcEW-ice generating 30 ppm of Cl2. AcEW-ice generating 70 and 150 ppm of Cl2 reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 2.0 log CFU/g. Further significant reduction of E. coli O157:H7 (2.5 log CFU/g) was demonstrated by treatment with AcEW-ice generating 240 ppm of Cl2. However, treatment with AcEW-ice generating 240 ppm of Cl2 resulted in a physiological disorder resembling leaf burn. AcEW-ice that generated less than 150 ppm of Cl2 had no effect on the surface color of the lettuce. AcEW-ice, regardless of the concentration of the emission of Cl2, had no effect on the ascorbic acid content in the lettuce. The weight ratio of lettuce to AcEW-ice required was determined to be over 1:10. The bactericidal effect of AcEW-ice appeared within the first 2 h. The use of AcEW-ice provides simultaneously for low temperature storage and inactivation of bacteria.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The effects of chlorine and pH on the bactericidal activity of electrolyzed (EO) water were examined against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. The residual chlorine concentration of EO water ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 mg/l, and the pH effect was examined at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. The bactericidal activity of EO water increased with residual chlorine concentration for both pathogens, and complete inactivation was achieved at residual chlorine levels equal to or higher than 1.0 mg/l. The results showed that both pathogens are very sensitive to chlorine, and residual chlorine level of EO water should be maintained at 1.0 mg/l or higher for practical applications. For each residual chlorine level, bactericidal activity of EO water increased with decreasing pH for both pathogens. However, with sufficient residual chlorine (greater than 2 mg/l), EO water can be applied in a pH range between 2.6 (original pH of EO water) and 7.0 while still achieving complete inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7


To evaluate the potential of using electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in water for livestock, the effects of water source, electrolyte concentration, dilution, storage conditions, and bacterial or fecal load on the oxidative reduction potential (ORP) and bactericidal activity of EO water were investigated. Anode and combined (7:3 anode:cathode, vol/vol) EO waters reduced the pH and increased the ORP of deionized water, whereas cathode EO water increased pH and lowered ORP. Minimum concentrations (vol/vol) of anode and combined EO waters required to kill 104 CFU/ml planktonic suspensions of E. coli O157:H7 strain H4420 were 0.5 and 2.0%, respectively. Cathode EO water did not inhibit H4420 at concentrations up to 16% (vol/vol). Higher concentrations of anode or combined EO water were required to elevate the ORP of irrigation or chlorinated tap water compared with that of deionized water. Addition of feces to EO water products (0.5% anode or 2.0% combined, vol/vol) significantly reduced (P < 0.001) their ORP values to <700 mV in all water types. A relationship between ORP and bactericidal activity of EO water was observed. The dilute EO waters retained the capacity to eliminate a 104 CFU/ml inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 H4420 for at least 70 h regardless of exposure to UV light or storage temperature (4 versus 24 C). At 95 h and beyond, UV exposure reduced ORP, significantly more so (P < 0.05) in open than in closed containers. Bactericidal activity of EO products (anode or combined) was lost in samples in which ORP value had fallen to 848 mV. When stored in the dark, the diluted EO waters retained an ORP of >848 mV and bactericidal efficacy for at least 125 h; with refrigeration (4 C), these conditions were retained for at least 180 h. Results suggest that EO water may be an effective means by which to control E. coli O157:H7 in livestock water with low organic matter content.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli


During commercial processing, eggs are washed in an alkaline detergent and then rinsed with chlorine to reduce dirt, debris, and microorganism levels. The alkaline and acidic fractions of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water have the ability to fit into the 2-step commercial egg washing process easily if proven to be effective. Therefore, the efficacy of EO water to decontaminate Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli K12 on artificially inoculated shell eggs was investigated. For the in vitro study, eggs were soaked in alkaline EO water followed by soaking in acidic EO water at various temperatures and times. Treated eggs showed a reduction in population between > or = 0.6 to > or =2.6 log10 cfu/g of shell for S. Enteritidis and > or =0.9 and > or =2.6 log10 for E. coli K12. Log10 reductions of 1.7 and 2.0 for S. Enteritidis and E. coli K12, respectively, were observed for typical commercial detergent-sanitizer treatments, whereas log10 reductions of > or =2.1 and > or =2.3 for S. Enteritidis and E. coli K12, respectively, were achieved using the EO water treatment. For the pilot-scale study, both fractions of EO water were compared with the detergent-sanitizer treatment using E. coli K12. Log10 reductions of > or = 2.98 and > or = 2.91 were found using the EO water treatment and the detergent-sanitizer treatment, respectively. The effects of 2 treatments on egg quality were investigated. EO water and the detergent-sanitizer treatments did not significantly affect albumen height or eggshell strength however, there were significant affects on cuticle presence. These results indicate that EO water has the potential to be used as a sanitizing agent for the egg washing process.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7, Listeria monocytogenes


Raw fish is prone to risk of microbial outbreaks due to contamination of pathogenic microorganisms. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes are among the pathogens associated with raw fish. Therefore, it is important to treat raw fish to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Electrolyzed oxidizing water is novel antimicrobial agent containing acidic solution with a pH of 2.6- 2.9, ORP of 1120 1180 mV, and 76-90 ppm free chlorine, and alkaline solution with a pH of 11.5 and ORP of 795 mV. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes Scott A on the surfaces (muscle and skin surfaces) of inoculated salmon fillets. Inoculated salmon fillets were treated only with acidic EO water at 22C and 35C and sodium hypochlorite solution (90 ppm free chlorine) as control at 22C for 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min, respectively. For the treatment with alkaline EO water followed by acidic EO water, a response surface model was developed to predict effective times in the range of 5-30 min and temperatures in the range of 22-35C for both alkaline and acidic water treatments. The acidic EO water treatments resulted in reductions of population of L. monocytogenes Scott A ranging from 0.40 log10 CFU/g (60 %) at 22oC to 1.12 log10 CFU/g (92.3 %) at 35oC. Treatment of inoculated salmon fillets in acidic EO water reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 0.49 log10 CFU/g (67 %) 22C and 1.07 log10 CFU/g (91.1 %) at 35C, respectively. Response surface analysis for alkaline EO water treatment followed by acidic treatment demonstrated that, maximum log reduction of 1.33 log10 CFU/g (95.3 %) for E. coli O157:H7 and 1.09 log10 CFU/g (91.9 %) for L. monocytogenes Scott A.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes


A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of electrolyzed acidic water, 200-ppm chlorine water, and sterile distilled water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of spot-inoculated tomatoes. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with electrolyzed acidic water, 200-ppm chlorine water, and sterile distilled water (control) and rubbed by hand for 40 s. Populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and in the peptone wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200-ppm chlorine water and electrolyzed acidic water resulted in 4.87- and 7.85-log10 reductions, respectively, in Escherichia coli O157:H7 counts and 4.69- and 7.46-log10 reductions, respectively, in Salmonella counts. Treatment with 200-ppm chlorine water and electrolyzed acidic water reduced the number of L. monocytogenes by 4.76 and 7.54 log10 CFU per tomato, respectively. This study s findings suggest that electrolyzed acidic water could be useful in controlling pathogenic microorganisms on fresh produce.



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Microbe(s): Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli


Research was conducted to compare the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidative (EO) water applied using an electrostatic spraying system (ESS) for killing populations of bacteria that are of concern to the poultry industry. Populations of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes), and the indicator bacterium Escherichia coli were applied to eggs and allowed to attach for 1 h. EO water completely eliminated all Salmonella typhimurium on 3, 7, 1, and 8 out of 15 eggs in Repetitions (Rep) 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, even when very high inoculations were used. EO water completely eliminated all Staphylococcus aureus on 12, 11, 12, and 11 out of 15 eggs in Rep 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. EO water completely eliminated all Listeria monocytogenes on 8, 13, 12, and 14 out of 15 eggs in Reps 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. EO water completely eliminated all Escherichia coli on 9, 11, 15, and 11 out of 15 eggs in Reps 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Even when very high concentrations of bacteria were inoculated onto eggs (many times higher than would be encountered in industrial situations), EO water was found to be effective when used in conjunction with electrostatic spraying for eliminating pathogenic and indicator populations of bacteria from hatching eggs.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes


A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of electrolyzed acidic water, 200-ppm chlorine water, and sterile distilled water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of spot-inoculated tomatoes. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with electrolyzed acidic water, 200-ppm chlorine water, and sterile distilled water (control) and rubbed by hand for 40 s. Populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and in the peptone wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200-ppm chlorine water and electrolyzed acidic water resulted in 4.87- and 7.85-log10 reductions, respectively, in Escherichia coli O157:H7 counts and 4.69- and 7.46-log10 reductions, respectively, in Salmonella counts. Treatment with 200-ppm chlorine water and electrolyzed acidic water reduced the number of L. monocytogenes by 4.76 and 7.54 log10 CFU per tomato, respectively. This study s findings suggest that electrolyzed acidic water could be useful in controlling pathogenic microorganisms on fresh produce.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes


Fresh-cut lettuce samples inoculated with S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes were dipped into 300 ppm electrolyzed water (EW) at pH 4 to 9 and 30 C for 5 min. The effects of treatment pH on bacterial reduction and visual quality of the lettuce were determined. The treatments at pH 4 and 8 resulted in the most effective inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, but the effect of pH was not significant (P > 0.05) for S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The treatment at pH 7 retained the best visual quality of lettuce, and achieved a reduction of approximately 2 log CFU/g for above 3 bacteria.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7


Electrolyzed oxidizing water is a relatively new concept that has been utilized in agriculture, livestock management, medical sterilization, and food sanitation. Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water generated by passing sodium chloride solution through an EO water generator was used to treat alfalfa seeds and sprouts inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7. EO water had a pH of 2.6, an oxidation reduction potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppm free chlorine. The percentage reduction in bacterial load was determined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min. Mechanical agitation was done while treating the seeds at different time intervals to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Since E. coli O157:H7 was released due to soaking during treatment, the initial counts on seeds and sprouts were determined by soaking the contaminated seeds/sprouts in 0.1% peptone water for a period equivalent to treatment time. The samples were then pummeled in 0.1% peptone water and spread plated on tryptic soy agar with 50 g/ml of nalidixic acid (TSAN). Results showed that there were reductions between 38.2% and 97.1% (0.22 1.56 log10 CFU/g) in the bacterial load of treated seeds. The reductions for sprouts were between 91.1% and 99.8% (1.05 2.72 log10 CFU/g). An increase in treatment time increased the percentage reduction of E. coli O157:H7. However, germination of the treated seeds reduced from 92% to 49% as amperage to make EO water and soaking time increased. EO water did not cause any visible damage to the sprouts.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) and acidified chlorinated water (45 ppm residual chlorine) was evaluated in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce. After surface inoculation, each leaf was immersed in 1.5 L of EO or acidified chlorinated water for 1 or 3 min at 22 C. Compared to a water wash only, the EO water washes significantly decreased mean populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 2.41 and 2.65 log10 CFU per lettuce leaf for 3 min treatments, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the difference between the bactericidal activity of EO and acidified chlorinated waters was not significant (p > 0.05). Change in the quality of lettuce subjected to the different wash treatments was not significant at the end of 2 wk of storage.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


Recently, several reports about sterilization effect of electrolyzed water have been published. The electrolyzed water is expected as one of attractive application for sanitation of fresh food, however, to install this electrolyzed water, we have to clear the potential of the microorganism control for real food. In this paper, we try to reveal the mechanism of the microorganism control, and also try to check the food quality change during the treatment. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of the electrolyzed water, we examined the several test for making sterilization mechanism clear and observed microorganism behavior on food surface. At first, for the purpose of making sterilization effects clear in vitro condition, we did microorganism test with several injection ratio and number. Then, we studied the effects of catalase on the enumeration of stressed Escherichia coli cells after acidic electrolyzed water treatment. Moreover, we studied sterilization effect of acidic electrolyzed water for E. coli on an agar block on the assumption as one of food model. In addition, we studied sterilization effects for sliced raw tuna as one sample of food surface treatment. The change in the quality of food surface was observed by scanning electron microscope, color meter and so on. Steriliaation effects are dependent the condition of injection ratio and mixing numbers. These results suggest that it is important to keep available chlorine concentration for keeping the potential to the microorganisms control. The increasing of E. coli number with the addition of catalase was suggested that the weak concentration of electrolyzed water gave the injured microbes. The Observation of cultivated E. coli behavior on agar block showed the microorganism behavior. Acidic electrolyzed water sterilizes microorganisms on sliced raw tuna, however, after treatment, the color change of surface of tuna and the protein denaturation were observed. These results suggest that when the electrolyzed water treatment is applied to control the microorganism on surface, the effect against food surface must be considered.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157: H7


Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied on strawberry, a fruit that is not usually washed during production, harvest, or postharvest handling. Two strains of the bacteria were tested separately on the fruit surface or injected into the fruit. Both strains of E. coli O157:H7 survived externally and internally at 23 C for 24 h and at 10, 5, and 20 C for 3 days. The largest reduction in bacterial population occurred at 20 C and on the fruit surface during refrigeration. In all experiments, the bacteria inside the fruit either survived as well as or better than bacteria on the surface, and ATCC 43895 frequently exhibited greater survival than did ATCC 35150. Two strains of E. coli also survived at 23 C on the surface and particularly inside strawberry fruit. Chemical agents in aqueous solution comprising NaOCl (100 and 200 ppm), Tween 80 (100 and 200 ppm), acetic acid (2 and 5%), Na3PO4 (2 and 5%), and H2O2 (1 and 3%) were studied for their effects on reduction of surface-inoculated (108 CFU/ml) E. coli O157:H7 populations on strawberry fruit. Dipping the inoculated fruit in water alone reduced the pathogen population about 0.8 log unit. None of the compounds with the exception of H2O2 exhibited more than a 2-log CFU/g reduction of the bacteria on the fruit surface. Three percent H2O2, the most effective chemical treatment, reduced the bacterial population on strawberries by about 2.2 log CFU/g.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


The efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) and acidified chlorinated water (45 ppm residual chlorine) was evaluated in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce. After surface inoculation, each leaf was immersed in 1.5 L of EO or acidified chlorinated water for 1 or 3 min at 22 C. Compared to a water wash only, the EO water washes significantly decreased mean populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 2.41 and 2.65 log10 CFU per lettuce leaf for 3 min treatments, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the difference between the bactericidal activity of EO and acidified chlorinated waters was not significant (p > 0.05). Change in the quality of lettuce subjected to the different wash treatments was not significant at the end of 2 wk of storage.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis


Acidic electrolyzed water (acidic EW), which is prepared by the electrolysis of an aqueous NaCl solution, has recently become of great importance for disinfection in a variety of fields, including medicine, the food industry and agriculture. In a previous paper we showed that: 1) acidic EW is a mixture of hypocholorite ion, hypochlorous acid and chlorine, depending upon the pH; 2) hypochlorous acid is primarily responsible for disinfection in the case of Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis PCI219, both in clean culture media. In practice, however, the use of acidic EW is in many cases severely hampered due to the presence of a variety of non-selective reducing agents. In view of the salient nature of acidic EW, it is therefore strongly urged to establish an optimum way to use acidic EW in a variety of systems. The present paper is the first report on our attempt along this line in order to characterize the nature of the chemical changes that the bactericidal activity of the acidic EW deteriorates in the presence of organic materials, which include amino acids and proteins.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus


This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) and chemically modified water with properties similar to the EO water for inactivation of different types of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus). A five-strain cocktail of each microorganism was exposed to deionized water (control), EO water and chemically modified water. To evaluate the effect of individual properties (pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and residual chlorine) of treatment solutions on microbial inactivation, iron was added to reduce ORP readings and neutralizing buffer was added to neutralize chlorine. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 occurred within 30 s after application of JAW EO water with 10 mg/l residual chlorine and chemically modified solutions containing 13 mg/l residual chlorine. Inactivation of Gram-positive and -negative microorganisms occurred within 10 s after application of ROX EO water with 56 mg/l residual chlorine and chemically modified solutions containing 60 mg/l residual chlorine. B. cereus was more resistant to the treatments than E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes and only 3 log10 reductions were achieved after 10 s of ROX EO water treatment. B. cereus spores were the most resistant pathogen. However, more than 3 log10 reductions were achieved with 120-s EO water treatment.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7


This study investigates the properties of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water for the inactivation of pathogen and to evaluate the chemically modified solutions possessing properties similar to EO water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7. A five-strain cocktail (1010 CFU/ml) of E. coli O157:H7 was subjected to deionized water (control), EO water with 10 mg/liter residual chlorine (J.A.W-EO water), EO water with 56 mg/liter residual chlorine (ROX-EO water), and chemically modified solutions. Inactivation (8.88 log10 CFU/ml reduction) of E. coli O157:H7 occurred within 30 s after application of EO water and chemically modified solutions containing chlorine and 1% bromine. Iron was added to EO or chemically modified solutions to reduce oxidation reduction potential (ORP) readings and neutralizing buffer was added to neutralize chlorine. J.A.W-EO water with 100 mg/liter iron, acetic acid solution, and chemically modified solutions containing neutralizing buffer or 100 mg/liter iron were ineffective in reducing the bacteria population. ROX-EO water with 100 mg/liter iron was the only solution still effective in inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and having high ORP readings regardless of residual chlorine. These results suggest that it is possible to simulate EO water by chemically modifying deionized water and ORP of the solution may be the primary factor affecting microbial inactivation.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes


The efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for inactivating. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7,S. enteritidis, or L. monocytogenes of approximately 108 CFU/ml was inoculated in 9 ml of electrolyzed oxidizing water (treatment) or 9 ml of sterile, deionized water (control) and incubated at 4 or 23 C for 0, 5, 10, and 15 min; at 35 C for 0, 2, 4, and 6 min; or at 45 C for 0, 1, 3, and 5 min. The surviving population of each pathogen at each sampling time was determined on tryptic soy agar. At 4 or 23 C, an exposure time of 5 min reduced the populations of all three pathogens in the treatment samples by approximately 7 log CFU/ml, with complete inactivation by 10 min of exposure. A reduction of 7 log CFU/ml in the levels of the three pathogens occurred in the treatment samples incubated for 1 min at 45 C or for 2 min at 35 C. The bacterial counts of all three pathogens in control samples remained the same throughout the incubation at all four temperatures. Results indicate that electrolyzed oxidizing water may be a useful disinfectant, but appropriate applications need to be validated.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes


One milliliter of culture containing a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (1010 CFU) was inoculated on a 100-cm2 area marked on unscarred cutting boards. Following inoculation, the boards were air-dried under a laminar flow hood for 1 h, immersed in 2 liters of electrolyzed oxidizing water or sterile deionized water at 23 C or 35 C for 10 or 20 min; 45 C for 5 or 10 min; or 55 C for 5 min. After each temperature-time combination, the surviving population of the pathogen on cutting boards and in soaking water was determined. Soaking of inoculated cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 5.0 log CFU/100 cm2 on cutting boards. However, immersion of cutting boards in deionized water decreased the pathogen count only by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Treatment of cutting boards inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes in electrolyzed oxidizing water at selected temperature-time combinations (23 C for 20 min, 35 C for 10 min, and 45 C for 10 min) substantially reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes in comparison to the counts recovered from the boards immersed in deionized water. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were not detected in electrolyzed oxidizing water after soaking treatment, whereas the pathogens survived in the deionized water used for soaking the cutting boards. This study revealed that immersion of kitchen cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water could be used as an effective method for inactivating foodborne pathogens on smooth, plastic cutting boards.



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Microbe(s): Escherichia coli


Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is probably the most widely used disinfectant worldwide and has an important role in inflammatory reaction and in human resistance to infection. However, the nature and mechanisms of its bactericidal activity are still poorly understood. Bacteria challenged aerobically with HOCl concentrations ranging from 9.5 to 76 M exhibit higher ability to form colonies anaerobically than aerobically. Conversely, aerobic plating greatly increased lethality after an anaerobic HOCl challenge, although anaerobic survival did not depend on whether HOCl exposure was aerobic or anaerobic. Even a short transient exposure to air after anaerobic HOCl challenge reduced anaerobic survival, indicative of immediate deleterious effects of oxygen. Exposure to HOCl can cause lethal DNA damage as judged by the fact that recA sensitivity to HOCl was oxygen dependent. Antioxidant defenses such as reduced glutathione and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were depleted or inactivated at 10 M HOCl, while other activities, such as superoxide dismutase, dropped only above 57 M HOCl. Cumulative deficiencies in superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase rendered strains hypersensitive to HOCl. This indicates that part of HOCl toxicity on Escherichia coli is mediated by reactive oxygen species during recovery.



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